Title I, Part A, dollar amount per low-income student
An LEA is not required to allocate the same per-pupil amount to each school. The LEA may allocate higher per-pupil amounts to higher poverty rate schools with higher concentrations of poverty than to lower poverty rate schools.
The following points summarize the requirements of Title I for allocating funds to participating schools:
- The "Final Adjusted Allocation" is based on the requirement that the LEA must set aside Title I, Part A, funds specifically required for homeless children, children in locally operated institutions for neglected children, parental involvement, choice-related transportation and supplemental educational services, and professional development as required by law and must account for the Title I funds it spends on those activities. The LEA must then allocate the remaining funds to schools in accordance with Section 1113 of the ESEA and Section 200.78 of the Title I regulations.
- An LEA must allocate Title I funds to participating schools in rank order, based on the percentage (not the number) of low-income children counted.
- The LEA must serve, in rank order of poverty, all schools with a poverty rate above 75 percent of the students across all grade spans. The LEA may skip a school that has a poverty rate of more than 75 percent only if supplemental state and local funds are allocated to that school in an amount equal to or greater than funding the school would have received from Title I, Part A, funds.
- Only after the LEA has served schools with a poverty rate above 75 percent may the LEA serve lower-ranked schools. The LEA has the option to (1) rank remaining schools by grade span groupings, or (2) proceed with districtwide ranking. If an LEA elects to allocate funds to schools by grade span, the LEA must fund schools in rank order within each grade span. For example, the LEA may fund only a specific grade span, all grade spans, or the highest poverty schools within some or all grade spans. The same poverty measure must be used consistently for all schools for either option (1) or (2) above.
- If the LEA has an average poverty percentage below 35 percent, the LEA may serve only schools at or above that LEA average. If an LEA serves any school with a poverty rate of less than 35 percent, the LEA must allocate to each of its participating schools an amount for each low-income child in each participating school that is at least 125 percent of the LEA's allocation per low-income child. The LEA must calculate the 125 percent allocation per low-income child before the LEA reserves any funds. The allocation per low-income child is the total LEA Title I, Part A, allocation divided by the total number of low-income children in the LEA. The LEA then multiples this per-child amount by 125 percent.
- An LEA with an enrollment of less than 1,000 students or with only one school per grade span, is not required:
- to identify eligible school attendance areas
- to determine the ranking of each area
- to determine allocations to schools
- to apply the 125 percent rule in cases where a school district serves a school with a poverty rate below 35 percent.
A school that received a Title I allocation and Parent Involvement funds in the previous year must expend any remaining funds before the end of the federal fiscal year.
In distributing the amount of funds the LEA reserves for schools to carry out the parental involvement provisions of ESEA Section 1118, an LEA may use the same formula it uses to determine the per-pupil allocations for those schools or it may distribute those funds in another manner. An LEA may use one or a combination of factors; for example, it may choose to allocate funds to schools in improvement status; base its allocation on the results of the LEA’s annual evaluation of parental involvement activities; or make use of the state education agency’s annual adequate yearly progress (AYP) review of how its LEAs are carrying out their responsibilities for activities under ESEA Section 1118.
The LEA must involve parents of Title I, Part A, participating children in decisions about how it allots to schools the funds the LEA has reserved for parental involvement activities. The involvement of parents should be in a manner consistent with the definition of parental involvement. In terms of process and representation, an LEA may choose to use its district-wide parent advisory council (if it has chosen to establish one) to provide advice on this and other matters relating to Title I, Part A, programs (ESEA sections 1118[a][B] and 1118[e]).
Allocating Title I, Part A, Funds for Instructional Services for Participating Private Schools
Private school set-aside: Once the participating public school attendance areas have been established, under ESEA Section 1113(c) of Title I, an LEA calculates the per-pupil allocation for each participating public school attendance area. Then, based on the total number of children from low-income families residing in each attendance area attending either public or private schools, the LEA calculates the total amount of funds for each area. From this amount, the LEA reserves an amount of funds for the private school children (equal to the per pupil allocation multiplied by the number of low-income private school students in the area) to provide equitable services to eligible private school participants.
Example: Calculating the Funds Available to Provide Title I Services for Private School Children
attendance area *
|Column A Title I per pupil allocation ** by attendance area||Column B Number of public school low-income children by attendance area||Column C Number of private school low-income children by attendance area||Column D Total allocation for each attendance area (A x [B+C])||Column E Amount available for instructional services to private school students (A x C)|
* Public school attendance area is defined as the geographical area from which a public school draws children.
** Per-pupil allocation or amount is defined as the amount of funds available for instructional services, based on the amount an LEA allots to each child who is from a low-income family and resides in a participating Title I public school attendance area.
In this example, eligible public school attendance areas are identified and ranked on the basis of the number of children from low-income families attending public schools. (Source: Non-regulatory Guidance)
If the LEA allocates different Title I amounts to the public schools, as shown in the example above, the LEA needs to calculate an average per pupil amount for the private school students. In the above example if column E represents a single private school, the per pupil amount in column D would be $758.86 which is calculated as follows:
The amount of funds allocated for services to private school students attending private school E, $119,900 ($104,000+$5,600+$1,800+$8,500) divided by 158 (130+8+3+17), which is the number of low income students who live within the boundaries of the Title I public schools and attend the private school E.
If the LEA uses “one single amount” for all of the public schools, the same per pupil amount must be used for all of the participating private schools.
For questions on calculating proportional amounts for equitable services for private school students participating in the Title I program, please contact Jyoti Singh, Education Programs Consultant, Improvement and Accountability Division, at 916-319-0372 or email@example.com.
Questions and Answers
- Can a school that is ineligible for Title I, Part A, allocation in 2010–11, still use its Title I carryover funds from the previous year?
Yes. A school that received a Title I, Part A, allocation in 2009–10 may spend its Title I funds through September 30, 2010.
- If a school is still eligible for Title I, Part A, allocation in the current year (but the LEA decides not to fund the school), can the school still use its carryover funds from the previous year?
Yes. A school that received a Title I, Part A, allocation in the fiscal year must expend the funds by the end of the federal fiscal year, September 30.
- How does an LEA determine the per pupil allocation?
LEAs have significant flexibility in determining the per pupil allocation for each Title I school. The Title I per-pupil allocation amount must be large enough to provide a reasonable assurance that the funded school can operate a Title I program of sufficient quality to enable children to make adequate progress toward meeting the State's challenging performance standards. In addition, a school with a higher poverty concentration cannot receive a per pupil allocation that is lower than a lower ranked school.
- When an LEA elects not to serve an eligible public school attendance area, as permitted under ESEA Title I, Part A, Section 1113(b)(1)(D), what are the procedures for serving the private school children who reside in that attendance area?
An LEA may elect not to serve ("skip") an eligible public school attendance area or school that has a higher percentage of children from low-income families than other schools it elects to serve if (1) the school meets the comparability requirements, (2) the school is receiving supplemental funds from other State or local sources that are spent according to the requirements of either ESEA sections 1114 or 1115, and (3) the funds expended from such other sources equal or exceed the amount that would be provided under Part A. Eligible private school children who reside in a “skipped” attendance area, however, must be provided Title I services even though the public school attendance area is skipped. In implementing this provision, therefore, an LEA must determine which school attendance areas would have received Title I funds absent any skipping and what the per-pupil allocations for those areas would have been. The LEA must then determine the amount of funds that would have been allocated for private school children residing in those school attendance areas. This amount is included in the funds available for serving eligible private school children residing in the LEA. If the LEA skips one or more of its higher-ranked school attendance areas, enabling the LEA to use Title I funds to serve additional lower-ranked areas, low-income private school children residing in those additional areas would not warrant the allocation of funds.