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The Impact of School Facilities


This is an Accessible Alternative Version of the Power Point Presentation: The Impact of School Facilities on Student Performance and Retention of Teachers (PPT; 55MB). The Power Point Presentation should be the preferred version for downloading.

Kathleen J. Moore, California Department of Education
Victoria Bergsagal, Architects of Achievement
Mary Filardo, 21st Century School Fund

The Achievement Gap Summit
November 14, 2007

Slides:

1. Facilities and the Achievement Gap

"Closing the disparity gap in school building quality should be an integral part of closing the achievement gap, and should be an explicit objective of state and federal education law, including No Child Left Behind and other funding sources."

21st Century School Fund
Building Education Success Together

2. How best to deliver instructional facilities?

How do we best deliver rigorous, personal, and relevant instructional and facilities environments capable of preparing ALL students for bright futures, not just some of them?

3. Facility Equity Lawsuits
4. California Williams Lawsuit

"Administrators also report that textbook and facility improvements are helping them attract and retain qualified teachers..."
Williams v. California, the Statewide Impact of Two Years of Implementation

5. California Spending on Public School Construction

California School Construction Spending 1995-2004 by percentage of Free and Reduced Lunch Students in School Districts

A graph showing the construction spending per student by family income. It shows that $3,746 dollars were expended per student for very low income families, $4,320 for low income families, $5,080 for moderate income families, $5,027 for middle income families, and $7,062 for high income families.

Building Educational Success Together (BEST)

6. The Research
7. How do Facilities Matter?

Student X, Teacher Y, and Principal Z all in good school building.

Better student academic outcomes.

8. Impact of Facilities on Student Performance
9. Facility Quality and Education Quality

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10. New Research
11. Direct Affects of Facility Condition, Design, Utilization
12. Thinking Outside the Box

What is the problem with the traditional classroom?

"Our high schools are obsolete. By obsolete, I don't just mean that they are broken, flawed, and underfunded---although I can't argue with any of those descriptions. What I mean is that they were designed 50 years ago to meet the needs of another age."
Bill Gates

13. Classroom Design is Based on Old Standards

History of the Classroom

14. Classroom Design is Based on Old Standards

Cells and Bells - It is a philosophy that starts with the assumption that a predetermined number of students will all learn the same thing at the same time from the same person in the same way in the same place for several hours each day.

15. 2007: Still Using/Thinking in the Factory Model?

Three pictures of various classrooms.

16. Instruction Delivery Change 18 Learning Modalities
  1. Independent study.
  2. Peer tutoring.
  3. Team collaborative work in small and mid-sized groups (2-6 students).
  4. One-on-one learning with teacher.
  5. Lecture format with teacher at center stage.
  6. Project-based learning.
  7. Technology based learning with mobile computers/hand helds.
  8. Distance learning.
  9. Research via the Internet with wireless networking.
  10. Student presentation.
  11. Performance-based learning.
  12. Seminar style instruction.
  13. Hands on project based learning.
  14. Naturalist learning.
  15. Social/emotional/spiritual learning
  16. Art-based.
  17. Story telling.
  18. Team teaching.

Prakish Nair

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17. Learner Centered Classroom

Brain Research confirms what experienced teachers have always known

Marian Diamond: Professor of Neuroanatomy at Berkeley

18. Learning Studio

Picture of a Learning Studio at High Tech High

19. The L-Shaped Design

A drawing of a teaching area with two small group area, library area, and a work table area.

Source: Fielding/Nair

20. Learning Centers/House Concepts

A plan of a learning center/house concept from High Tech High.

21. Trends in Classroom Design

Design of the 12th Floor plan of Phase Two at the Millennium High School in New York.

Global skills: collaboration and creativity.

22. Trends in Classroom Design

Focus on Activities of Learning

Activity settings that are integrated, flexible, and variable.

23. Trends in Classroom Design

Focus on Extended Learning Areas

Small group areas, independent research project based learning.

24. Trends in Classroom Design

Focus on Interdisciplinary Instruction

Connectivity and teacher collaboration enhanced.

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25. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

Renovated space at Jefferson High School (Los Angeles) and implemented New Tech Program, 2005.

Photograph of the new classroom at Jefferson High School New Tech Program.

26. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

Renovated space at Jefferson High School (Los Angeles) and the implemented New Tech Program, 2005.

Photographs of students at Jefferson High School, New Tech Program.

27. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

Student Ethnicity by Percentage

A graph showing the percentage of American Indian students, Asian students, Pacific Islander students, Filipino students, Black students, Hispanic students, and White students at the Student Empowerment Academy and at Jefferson High School.

28. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

A graph showing the percentage of Special Education Students with Active IEP, English Language Learners, and Poverty Indicator, Free/Reduced Lunch at Student Empowerment Academy and at Jefferson High School.

29. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

A graph showing the percentage of CAHSEE first time (ELA and Math) pass rates (March 2007) at Student Empowerment Academy and at Jefferson High School.

30. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

A graph showing the student suspension rate as of June 2007 at Student Empowerment Academy and Jefferson High School.

31. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

A graph showing the 2007 California Standardized Testing and Reporting (STAR) with students scoring proficient and above in English - Language Arts for ninth and tenth grades at Student Empowerment Academy and Jefferson High School.

32. Student Empowerment Academy (NTH @ Jefferson)

A graph showing the 2007 growth in the Academic Performance Index at Student Empowerment Academy and Jefferson High School.

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33. Sacramento New Tech High School

Renovated old elementary/alternative school and implemented New Tech High School in 2003.

A photograph of the New Technology High School.

34. Sacramento New Tech High School

Renovated old elementary/alternative school and implemented New Tech High School in 2003.

A photograph of the New Technology High School.

35. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of the New Technology High School.

Old meets new.

36. Sacramento New Tech High School

Student enrollment: 355

Percentage of students receiving free and reduced lunch is 62 percent.

Percentage of students of color is 70 percent.

Percentage of African American students is 27 percent.

Percentage of Latino students is 26 percent.

Percentage of English Language Learners is 25 percent.

37. Sacramento New Tech High School

Learning through Projects - photograph of a classroom at Sacramento New Tech High.

38. Sacramento New Tech High School

Featured in...

Policy Supports for Student Learning in Communities of Color Policy Brief High Schools for Equity

39. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of students - Stanford Study (Nov. 2007).

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40. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of students - Stanford Study (Nov. 2007).

41. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of students - Stanford Study (Nov. 2007).

New Tech High students admitted to four-year colleges at rates noticeably higher than the rates for all students in the state as a whole - 42% compared to the state average of 26%.

42. Sacramento New Tech High School

A graph showing the college admission rates at Sacramento New Tech High School compared to the state average.

43. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of a hallway at Sacramento New Tech High School.

44. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of a hallway at Sacramento New Tech High School.

45. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of a classroom at Sacramento New Tech High School showing the natural lighting.

46. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of a classroom at Sacramento New Tech High School showing how the natural lighting can be controlled.

47. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of a outdoor gathering area at Sacramento New Tech High School.

48 Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of joint use of adjacent park to Sacramento New Tech High School.

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49. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of a classroom at Sacramento New Tech High School showing the natural lighting.

50. Sacramento New Tech High School

A photograph of a classroom and students at Sacramento New Tech High School.

New Tech High is Sacramento serves a population that is mostly low-income students of color. Most of the students attending New Tech had a high probability of being disengaged by their school or were on the brink of dropping out if they attended the nearby large, comprehensive high schools with traditional unresponsive, factory model approaches. Instead, New Tech "rekindles that love of learning," as one teacher put it. (Stanford, November 2007)

51. API vs. Current Enrollment (8/22/2007 data)

A graph showing API scores and the population.

Source: New Construction Reserve from Existing Facilities (Los Angeles Unified School District Document, October 23, 2007)

52. API vs. Current Enrollment (8/22/2007 data)

A graph showing API scores and the population.

Source: New Construction Reserve from Existing Facilities (Los Angeles Unified School District Document, October 23, 2007)

53. Essential Elements of Campus Transformation
54. Essential Elements of Campus Transformation
55. Essential Elements of Campus Transformation
56. Small Learning Community Site Plans

A plan of a small learning community.

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57. An Overview of Smaller Learning Communities in High Schools (U.S. Department of Education, 2001)

Researchers emphasize that conditions designed to simulate small schools must be authentic...

the more independent they are, the more likely it is that smaller learning communities will match small schools' benefits...

Without a separate space, autonomous administration and budget, designated faculty, and distinctive philosophy, small school simulations likely offer diminished benefits, or none at all.

58. Monroe Educational Campus

A plan of Monroe High School proposed first floor and second floor.

59. Monroe Educational Campus

A plan of Monroe High School campus.

60. Monroe Educational Campus

Capture in-between exterior spaces or create mini-courtyards owned by each small learning community for outdoor learning, gathering, and distributed dining.

Contiguous Space

A drawing of the proposed Monroe High School small learning community.

61. Monroe Educational Campus

Enhance bungalow areas to create clear clusters of learning and outdoor gathering spaces.

A photograph of school bungalows.

62. Monroe Educational Campus

Bungalows can be made more effective gathering spaces by adding shade, tables, benches, and landscaping.

A drawing of the proposed Monroe High School small learning community.

63. Monroe Educational Campus

Create satellite administration and student support services within each small learning community.

Photograph of satellite administration at Monroe High School.

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64. Identity

Photograph of a wall with "Freshman Academy" painted in bold letters.

65. Quote by Mary Ann Raywid

"If you want to get the benefit of small, then the kids have to affiliate with the unit - the small school - in order to bring if off. Unless teachers can create their own school climate - unless the kids can see some difference when they leave their own part of the building then they are not going to identify with it. And if they don't identify, you have lost the battle."

66. Identity
67. Identity Development

Monroe High School

68. Identity

Consider ways to communicate a Small Learning Communities core focus to students, staff, and community.

Photograph of brochure advertising the 9th Grade Academy, Engineering Design Academy, and the Education Academy.

69. Identity

Look beyond athletic traditions and school mascots to focus on academic and thematic distinctions between small learning communities, as well as focus on teaching and learning.

Photograph of a school wall at Monroe High School.

70. Identity

Photograph of an information board at Monroe High School.

71. Identity

Photograph of various banners for Monroe High School and the various learning communities.

72. Identity

Employ exterior signage to convey an impression of the small learning community identity or signature.

Drawings of the proposed Monroe High School small learning community.

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73. Essential Elements

The building is not the change, the building allows the change.

Leadership - Instruction - Community - Facilities

74. Things that work
  1. Cohesive learning communities.
  2. Clear academic focus.
  3. Learning is public, engaging, and challenging.
  4. Permeable school walls.
75. What it looks like
  1. High performance workplace.
  2. Multi-use and flexible spaces.
  3. exhibition and presentation.
  4. Spaces for teachers collaboration.
  5. Visible and transparent learning.
  6. Ubiquitous technology.
  7. Hubs of activity, focus, and gathering.
76. Quote by Albert Einstein

"No problem can be solved with the same consciousness that created it. We must learn to see the world anew."

77. Quote

"How do we best deliver rigorous, personal, and relevant instructional and facilities environments capable of preparing all students for bright futures, not just some of them?"

78. Roles and Responsibilities of Educators
79. Contacts

Victoria Bergsagel
Architects of Achievement External link opens in new window or tab.
7858 SE 28th Street, Suite A-514
Mercer Island, WA 98040
Phone: 206-420-1400
Fax: 206-420-1401

Mary Filardo
21st Century School Fund External link opens in new window or tab.
1816 12th Street NW
Thurgood Marshall Center
Washington, DC 20009
Phone: 202-745-3745
Fax: 202-745-1713

Kathleen J. Moore
California Department of Education
School Facilities Planning Division
1430 N Street, Suite 1201
Sacramento, CA 95814
Phone: 916-445-2144
Fax: 916-327-3954

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Questions:   John Gordon | jgordon@cde.ca.gov | 916-323-0575
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