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AAV Educational Specifications

This is the accessible alternative version of the educational specifications is to help school districts develop specificaitons based on a fundamental principle of modern architecture: form follows function.

This is an Accessible Alternative Version of the publication Educational Specifications: Linking Design of School Facilities to Education Program (PDF;18MB). The Adobe Acrobat Portable Document should be the preferred version for downloading.

This document was prepared by the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education.

Contents

Foreword

Preface

Acknowledgments

Introduction: How to Use This Document

Chapter 1 - The Meaning of Educational Specifications

Chapter 2 - The Role of Educational Specifications in Facility Planning

Chapter 3 - Development of Educational Specifications

Chapter 4 - Suggested Format for Educational Specifications

Chapter 5 - Annotated Outline for an Educational Specifications Document: Parts I and II

Chapter 6 - Part III of the Annotated Outline: Activity-Area Requirements

Chapter 7 - Parts IV and V of the Annotated Outline: Summaries of Area Relationships and Space Requirements

Conclusion

Appendixes

Appendix 1: Master Planning and Overall Goals

Appendix 2: Remodeling Facilities

Appendix 3: Public Relations

Appendix 4: Selecting the Architect

Appendix 5: Project Delivery

Appendix 6: Site Selection

Appendix 7: Safe Architecture for Schools

Appendix 8: School Disaster Preparedness Plan

Appendix 9: Facility Activation, Orientation, and Postoccupancy Evaluation

Appendix 10: Sample Form ES-3: Facilities Inspection Summary

Appendix 11: Constructibility Reviews

Selected References

Foreword

The shape of our students' learning environment must be carefully planned to support our educational objectives as well as to provide safe, clean, and technologically up-to-date facilities. The planning process begins with the definition of educational goals and the development of educational specifications.

The California Department of Education has prepared this document, Educational Specifications: Linking Design of School Facilities to Educational Program, to help school districts develop specifications based on a fundamental principle of modern architecture: form follows function. Educationally effective facilities must correspond to and support the curriculum function they are designed to house.

The facilities should reflect the belief of adults in our society that education is important. Our students are young, but they are not stupid. They have been to the mall. They know what buildings look like when adults are serious, caring, and engaged about the purpose of those buildings.

As new educational concepts emerge, school design must follow those concepts. Until recently, educational reform has understandably been focused primarily on developing high-quality teachers and promoting excellence in instructional methods and technology. Recent research, however, has revealed a critical relationship between learning and the physical environment in which it occurs. An awareness is growing that a school facility may do more than simply house the instructional program. The facility is part of the program.

Educating our diverse student population presents challenges that can be met only by carefully defining each community's needs and designing a curriculum to meet those needs. The educational specification becomes the vehicle the architect uses to translate the curriculum and the instructional program into a beautiful, economical, and functional educational environment that can help shape the way our communities enter the twenty-first century and influence the quality of life in our neighborhoods thereafter.

This document is intended to be a guide in that process. I hope that you will find it useful.

Delaine Eastin
State Superintendent of Public Instruction

 

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Preface

In 1994 the California Department of Education was directed by the Legislature to formalize regulations governing standards for the design and construction of new school facilities. Included with those standards are requirements for the submittal of educational specifications. (See the California Code of Regulations, Title 5, Section 14034, on the application of standards to locally funded school districts.) Those requirements are delineated in Education Code Section 39101(c). They are also listed in the California Code of Regulations, Title 5, Section 14030(a), as follows:

Educational specifications for school design shall be prepared based on the district's goals, objectives, policies, and community input that determine the educational program and define the following:

To implement the regulations and assist school districts in preparing educational specifications, the Department has provided two options for districts to consider when requesting plan approvals. Districts may submit (1) complete educational specifications as suggested in this document; or (2) minimum specifications. Copies of the forms to be submitted and advice on their use can be obtained from the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education; telephone 916-322-2470.

In most cases, especially for large projects, school districts will submit the complete educational specifications rather than the minimal ones. Submitting educational specifications with schematic design-phase documents (preliminary plans) will facilitate the approval process in the California Department of Education.

Susan Lange
Deputy Superintendent
Department Management Services Branch

Ann M. Evans
Division Director
School Facilities Planning Division

Ellen Aasletten, AIA
Senior Architect
School Facilities Planning Division

Acknowledgments

The State Superintendent of Public Instruction and the California Department of Education are indebted to everyone who contributed ideas and critiques during the development of this document, especially to those school districts and their design consultants that used the rough draft as a guide for developing educational specifications for their projects. The generous feedback they provided was invaluable.

The Superintendent and the Department are also grateful to the members of the many professional organizations that provided information to expand the document's scope. Included in this list are the American Institute of Architects, California Council; the Coalition for Adequate School Housing; the Council of Educational Facilities Planners, International; and the California School Boards Association.

The list of individuals to be thanked includes past and present members of the Department of Education's School Facilities Planning Division who worked long and hard to develop the document and other Department employees who contributed information and comments. Special thanks are extended to Jan Agee, Duwayne Brooks, Michelle Collins, Lorene Euerle, Julian Gonzales, Henry Heydt, Cecelia James, Tom Payne, Sue Pendleton, Patricia Jones Penn, Urvan Rodriguez, Patricia Rose, Stan Rose, Leroy R. Small, and Robert D. Williams. Special thanks are also extended to Anne Taylor, Educational Consultant, who reviewed the draft for conformance with current educational theory.

Introduction: How to Use This Document

The purpose of this document is to assist school district staff, in cooperation with school and community leaders, in preparing educational specifications. The document includes a definition of the specifications, suggested procedures, and a model format. More importantly, the purpose is to help craft visions for educational programs for the twenty-first century and the facilities necessary to support those visionary goals.

Note: The intent of this guide is to provide a model only. Both the form and the content of a district's document should reflect the specific goals and plans of the district and the community. Although parts of this guide may be inappropriate for a particular project because of its size or type, topics should be reviewed to discover whether they are relevant.

Organization of This Document

This document is divided into chapters to parallel the logical development of educational specifications:

Note: Completion of the annotated outline and sample form for all five parts, together with public review, will produce the data needed to prepare a complete educational specifications document.

Importance of Educational Specifications

Complete documentation of all project requirements will help district and school staff respond to public comment on what is included in the project, what is not included, and why items were included or omitted.

The complete documentation of project requirements before the design process is begun helps in all phases: design, construction, occupancy, and postoccupancy evaluation. The project should be reviewed in relation to the educational specifications at each phase so that elements needed to support the curriculum are not lost in process. Examples might include the following:

Comprehensive educational specifications link facility design to the educational program and serve as documentation for the completed facility. In future evaluations understanding the reasons that shaped the spaces may be valuable in implementing changes necessitated by new developments in teaching or technology.

Educators must remain active in facility development and not delegate program decisions or interpretations to others. They are the only qualified advocates for the cultural and developmental needs of the ultimate clients; that is, the students and the teachers who serve them.

The best projects evolve from constructive dialogue between designer and educator. An architect can offer new alternatives in design and technology but may not be proficient in educational theory or instructional delivery systems. Educators must work with architects and district business officials collaboratively to apply creative problem solving to facility issues without losing sight of educational issues. A complete educational specifications document helps keep the educator in charge and facilitates communication within the project stakeholder group. To be effective in this role, however, the educational specifications document must reflect consensus in educational goals by all stakeholders: educators, students, administrators, classified staff, parents, and the general public.

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Chapter 1 - The Meaning of Educational Specifications

Uncertainty sometimes exists as to the precise meaning of the term educational specifications. For that reason this chapter is devoted to defining the term and distinguishing it from other terms with which it can be confused.

What Educational Specifications Are

Educational specifications are interrelated statements that communicate (or specify) to the architect, the public, and other interested parties what educators believe is required for a proposed educational facility to support a specific educational program.

Educational specifications serve as the link between the educational program and the school facilities. They translate the physical requirements of the educational program into words and enable the architect to visualize the educational activity to be conducted so that the architectural concepts and solutions support the stated educational program.

From this definition two aspects of educational specifications emerge: (1) instructional matters, often referred to as the educational program; and (2) the physical requirements of instruction, often referred to as the building/architectural program.

Educational Program

The educational program describes the curricula, learning support programs, activities, and persons to be served; defines educational requirements; and represents local community consensus on educational priorities. It should be prepared by educators and should not prematurely suggest architectural solutions.

Building/Architectural Program

The building/architectural program deals with the numbers of students to be housed and numbers and kinds of spaces required and describes areas, spatial relationships, materials, and special features (e.g., use of technology in the classroom) needed to serve the requirements of the educational program. The architect may lead in the development of the building program but needs guidance from educators in interpreting requirements and determining priorities.

What Educational Specifications Are Not

Educational specifications are sometimes confused with construction specifications and are often confused with a facilities master plan.

Construction Specifications

Construction specifications are documents developed by the architect as part of the contract documents (contract, drawings, construction specifications, and change orders) to delineate the construction materials, methods, and systems necessary to complete the project. Educational specifications are not a part of the construction specifications except as specifically included in the contract documents because of the project delivery method selected. (See Appendix 5.)

Facilities Master Plan

A facilities master plan is a compilation of information, policies, and statistical data about a school district. The plan is organized to provide a continuing basis for planning educational facilities that will meet the changing needs of a community and offer alternatives in allocating resources to achieve the district's goals and objectives. The relationship of educational specifications to a facilities master plan can be seen in the following outline:

A Facilities Master Plan

  1. Articulates district educational goals and philosophy.
  2. Establishes desired standards and practices related to the district's educational facilities.
  3. Sets guidelines and addresses major facilities issues to assist in the decision-making process.
  4. Assesses the condition and adequacy of existing facilities.
  5. Identifies needed improvements and their implementation costs.
  6. Establishes guidelines for educational specifications (specific to each site).
  7. Establishes procedures for selecting an architect.
  8. Formulates a capital improvement plan, including estimated costs, timeline for construction, and project delivery methods.
  9. Documents and analyzes local demographic information, including predictions for community growth.
  10. Establishes criteria for site selection and outlines procedures for acquisition.
  11. Delineates working relationships with city and county governments.
  12. Allows for community participation, support, and use of facilities when appropriate.

Educational specifications are a part of a total planning process, a natural outgrowth of a comprehensive facilities master plan. The cost of implementing the educational specifications is folded into the capital improvement plan. Educational specifications rely on many of the elements of the facilities master plan but pertain to a specific building project or group of projects. A facilities master plan pertains to districtwide objectives over a longer period of time. (See Appendix 1.)

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Chapter 2 - The Role of Educational Specifications in Facility Planning

Although the development of educational specifications is the keystone of the facility planning process, it is only one part of it. The process is a continuum, as shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1 shows a circle with the process. The process is as follows:

  1. Evaluation of existing properties and growth.
  2. Development of educational specifications.
  3. Development and review of the design.
  4. Development and review of construction documents.
  5. Construction review.
  6. Project acceptance.
  7. Facilities activation and training or orientation.
  8. Postoccupancy evaluation.
Evaluation of Existing Properties and Growth

The first step in any educational project is to assess the existing situation and define what actions are to be undertaken. To be included are a determination of what is to be taught, how it will be taught, and what education and learning support activities are to be housed; the number of students to be housed; grade-level organization; review of district goals and policies; assessment of existing facilities; population projections; community needs; and site selection if necessary. Evaluation of sites includes a review of environmental impact and geotechnical reports that may be applicable to the site under consideration. (See appendixes 1 and 9.)

Development of Educational Specifications

The architect should be asked to design a school after a complete set of educational specifications is developed.

If the school district does not have staff with expertise in writing educational specifications, then the programming or preparation of educational specifications may be included in the contract with the architect. (This responsibility may properly be negotiated as extra services.) Although the architect may not be an educator, his or her past experience with school planning and knowledge of the relationship between function and design can make a valuable contribution. If the architect is inexperienced in writing educational specifications, it may be advisable to contract with consultants who have cross-disciplinary backgrounds and are specifically experienced in facility programming.

Development and Review of the Design

Design development cannot be successful until the project requirements are defined. During this phase the district and the architect must compromise on conflicts contained in those requirements. Compromise decisions must be documented and addenda made to the educational specifications. A detailed review of those specifications should be made at several points during development.

Decisions on project delivery (e.g., traditional contractor/architect method, construction management, design/build) must be made during this phase because the design development documents (including the educational specifications) become part of the contract documents in some types of project delivery. (See Appendix 5.)

Development and Review of Construction Documents

As construction documents are developed, a review of the documents in relation to the requirements in the educational specifications should occur at several points. The architect is unqualified to evaluate educational requirements alone and should not be allowed to do so. At each step the educator or education committee in charge of the project should ensure that the educational program is not compromised. When addenda to the educational specifications are necessary, they should be approved by the school district governing body.

A description of the formal review process for the construction phase should be included in the contract documents for the project. The contractor should be required to schedule meetings specifically to review, with the architect and the district, conformance with the educational specifications.

Construction and Review

During construction the inspector for the project and representatives of the educational specifications committee and the school board should continually examine the project in relation to the requirements of the educational specifications. Items necessary to the educational program, such as required storage, must not be sacrificed to accommodate building equipment that should have been allocated more space in the design phase. Construction review should become a formal process held at specific increments, possibly weekly. And the requirements for such a process should be included in the contract documents.

Project Acceptance

The project should not be accepted if contract requirements for conformance to the educational specifications are not met. The "finished" project should be reviewed in relation to the educational specifications, together with any addenda to the specifications made during the development of the construction documents and during construction. Ideally, all components required in the educational specifications should be included in the construction documents.

Facilities Activation and Training or Orientation

The intent and operation of the buildings should be explained to the users during the activation and training period. Further, how the project meets the objectives of the educational specifications should be explained to the users and, where necessary, to the public.

Postoccupancy Evaluation

After it has been in use for some predetermined period of time (such as the first semester or the school year), the completed project should be evaluated. How well the project fulfills the intent of the educational specifications and whether the educational specifications for the next project need adjustment should be determined. Postoccupancy evaluations should be carefully documents. (See Appendix 9.)

Effects of Restructured Curriculum on Educational Specifications

Educational specifications are based on a fundamental principle of modern architecture: form follows function. Educationally effective buildings must support the teaching and learning functions they are intended to house.

As new educational concepts emerge, school design must follow those concepts. Winston Churchill is reported to have said that "we shape our buildings, and thereafter they shape us." The environment can be seen as a learning tool (e.g., in learning landscape ecology). If, then, the physical environment can directly affect the persons housed there and the activities that take place there, facility planners and instructional leaders must give due consideration to planning for schools.

Curriculum reform (the restructuring of such concepts as curriculum integration, multiple intelligences, multiple-age grouping, coordinated support services, community use of facilities, and team teaching and of such newer programs as year-round calendars, Challenge schools, and class-size reduction) must be implemented effectively. The most advantageous way to do so is to develop for each proposed project educational specifications describing the goals and facility requirements of the restructured curriculum. In this manner form, as designed by the architect, can follow educational function.

For more information on educational restructuring, see the California Department of Education's task force report titled The Form of Reform (1997). The task force included educators, architects, teachers, and others involved in the planning of new facilities and the remodeling of existing ones. It reviewed the reform documents titled Here They Come: Ready or Not (1988), It's Elementary (1992), Caught in the Middle (1987), and Second to None (1992), published by the California Department of Education, and determined the design implications of the reforms recommended in those documents.

The design implications of the restructured curriculum demand close cooperation between educator and designer if facilities are to support educational goals effectively. Recognition of separate roles and responsibilities will effectively bring each participant's expertise to the project:

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Chapter 3 - Development of Educational Specifications

Before the architect begins a design, the educational planners should develop complete educational specifications. The development process may take six months to a year (or more) and should involve faculty, staff, students, parents, and community advisers. That period of time is necessary for a project to succeed because it allows the establishment of partnerships among the planning group so that they can communicate with the larger community.

It may be advisable to include the architect in the process of developing the educational specifications. Early involvement helps the architect better understand what the educators' goals are and what the educational specifications communicate.

Developing procedures and programs before beginning design will expedite all phases of the project and will result in a facility that will help meet and not impede educational objectives. District goals should be reexamined and updated before a new educational specifications document is developed. If the school is to be supported by the public, school leaders should make sure that district goals do not conflict with what parents, the community, and the children themselves perceive as legitimate goals.

Available Sources of Information

The School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, has staff consultants who can help you develop your educational specifications. Telephone 916-322-2470.

Data for facility requirements should be gathered from all potential users of the facility, including staff, students, and the public. (see chapters 4-7.)

Development of Procedures and Organization

The following procedures include but are not limited to those needed to develop successful educational specifications. The exact procedures, the organization of the educational specifications committee, and the need for consultants will vary depending on the size of complexity of the project.

Selection of the Program Director

The program director will have overall responsibility for developing educational specifications. The first step in developing procedures to implement the facilities planning process should, therefore, be the selection of the director. Attributes to be looked for in selecting a director are as follows:

Establishment of the Required Organization

The size of the required organization may be as small as one person (for a small remodeling project) or as complex as the example of the committee outlined below. In any case the organization should remain in place until the project is occupied.

The educational specifications advisory committee reports to the project director and writes, reviews, approves, and presents to the board and the public the data and documents produced by its subcommittees. Various subcommittees report to the advisory committee. The number of subcommittees will vary to reflect the size and complexity of the proposed project.

Selection of Committee Members and Consultants

Representatives in the organization might be board members, community leaders, personnel from the district staff, principals, teachers, classified personnel, parents, students, school-linked services providers, city and county planners, architects, consultants, developers, or representatives or the chamber of commerce and the building industry. The board's expectations should be clear.

Assignment of Roles to All Members

Overall responsibility for facilities planning should be assigned to one person, the program director. The organization will require clerical support and a budget to cover consultant fees, staff salaries, and other costs, such as expenses for field trips to exemplary projects in other communities. (If such field trips are planned, examples must be analyzed so that bad practices are not copied.) The following work sheet includes basic roles that should be addressed in the process of developing educational specifications regardless of the size of the organization.

Roles and Actions

Action (List the responsible group or individual).

  1. Appoint committee members.
  2. Provide leadership and establish goals and objectives (for committee and for district).
  3. Determine discernible trends: teaching/learning methods, population trends/demographics, socioeconomic factors, community-services needs.
  4. Determine enrollment information: minimum/maximum class size, total enrollment.
  5. Determine mobility information. Will students, individually or in small or large groups, move from the facility to other areas or facilities? How many students go from where to where? At what times?
  6. Report to school board.
  7. Schedule and coordinate meetings.
  8. Define functions to be housed according to the educational program in each groping or area of instruction.
  9. Organize subcommittee information for review by other committee groups.
  10. Review and comment on educational specifications in process.
  11. Collect and analyze data from documents. Coordinate reports. Include the impact of the district facilities master plan, the technology master plan, and other long-range plans on the project.
  12. Consider the need for consultants for coordination or specialized expertise. Select the architect (see Appendix 4). Determine the method of project delivery (see Appendix 5).
  13. Prepare a rough draft.
  14. Review contents and revise rough draft.
  15. Prepare final documents.
  16. Present points of view to the community, district, and the board. Ensure that all points of view are adequately considered. (Set up a design communication center or hotline to facilitate public awareness of the programming and planning process.)
  17. Interact with other agencies, such as the city planning and recreation districts, and keep them informed of project progress. Consider the joint use of facilities, such as playfields, libraries, assembly spaces, and gymnasiums.
  18. Obtain committee sign-off and board approval.
  19. Other.
Communication Protocol

Who informs whom? Who receives copies of data, rough drafts, and so on? Who handles public relations? Each person should have specific instructions on communication within the educational specifications advisory committee and with other interested stakeholders, parents, students, staff, and the general public, including media contacts. Communication should be open and two-way if schools are to be considered part of the social solution and therefore supported by the community they serve. Support does not come to groups, no matter how well meaning, if they seem inaccessible and thus unresponsive to the public. (See Appendix 3.)

Approval Process and Authority

The work sheet below includes some of the possible persons who hold authority or who need to be informed of the progress of the committee. Develop a diagram illustrating the approval process so that everyone knows who is to kept informed. List the assigned area of authority or span of responsibility.

  1. School administration.
  2. Staff: certificated/classified.
  3. Media.
  4. Public, including governmental agencies, such as planning, parks and recreation, and other joint-use partners.
  5. Board of education (trustees).
  6. Parents (and students).
  7. Other.
Human Resources

List groups or individuals and their possible contributions. Use the following work sheet as a sample guide.

  1. Board members.
  2. Administrators.
  3. Teachers (including athletic directors and counselors), and paraprofessional instructional staff.
  4. Consultants.
  5. Clerical staff.
  6. Maintenance, grounds, and custodial staff.
  7. Food service staff.
  8. Students.
  9. Parents.
  10. Community groups, chamber of commerce, and so on.
  11. City and county officials.
  12. Special program staff (e.g., special education, Healthy Start, Head Start).
  13. School nurse.
  14. Other.
Documents for Educational Specifications Committee

Have or procure the following documents:

  1. California Education Code.
  2. California Code of Regulations, Title 5.
  3. District goals, objectives, and philosophy.
  4. Educational program expressed in state and local curriculum guides.
  5. The Guide for Planning Educational Facilities (1996). Available from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International (CEFPI), 8687 E. Via de Ventura, Suite 311, Scottsdale, AZ 85258-3347; telephone 602-948-2337. Other CEFPI planning documents include Preparing Your School Building for Technology (1996), Designing Places for Learning (1995), and The Guide for School Facility Appraisal (1986).
  6. District needs assessment/master plan.
  7. Community general plan (county or city).
  8. Publications available from the California Department of Education. Call the Publications Division, Sales Office, at 1-800-995-4099 for a catalog of curriculum guides and other publications:
    1. Building the Future: K-12 Technology Network Planning Guide (1994).
    2. California Environmental Education Resource Guide (1995).
    3. Caught in the Middle: Educational Reform for Young Adolescents in California Public Schools (1987).
    4. The Form of Reform: School Facility Design - Implications for California Educational Reform (1997).
    5. Here They Come, Ready or Not: Report of the School Readiness Task Force (1988).
    6. It's Elementary! Elementary Grades Task Force Report (1992).
    7. Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action (1995).
    8. School Facilities Planning Guide (1997).
    9. School Nutrition Facility Planning Guide (1992).
    10. Schools for the Twenty-First Century (1990).
    11. Science Facilities Design for California Public Schools (1992).
    12. Second to None - A Vision of the New California High School: The Report of the California High School Task Force (1992).
  9. Publications available from the School Facilities Planning Division; telephone 916-322-2470:
    1. Facilities Performance Profile (1988).
    2. Guide for the Development of a Long-Range Facilities Plan (1986).
    3. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators (1994).
    4. School Site Analysis and Development Guide (1987).
    5. School Site Selection and Approval Guide (1989).
    6. Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams: Facilities Planning and Construction (1991).
    7. Virtual Schoolhouse: A Report to the Legislature on Distribution Infrastructures for Advanced Technologies in the Construction of New Schools, K-12. Prepared by the Office of the State Architect, California Department of General Services (1993).
  10. Publications available from the California School Boards Association pertaining to planning and financing school construction. Address: 3100 Beacon Blvd., West Sacramento, CA 95691; telephone 916-371-4691.
  11. Postoccupancy evaluations of district schools.
  12. Handbook on Project Delivery (1996). Available from the American Institute of Architects, California Council; telephone 916-448-9082.
  13. Indoor Air Quality: Tools for Schools Action Kit (1996). Developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Available from the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, P.O. Box 371954, Pittsburgh, PA 1520-7954 (order processing code: 3209); FAX 202-512-2250; telephone 202-512-1800.
  14. School Area Pedestrian Safety (1993). Available from the California Department of Transportation, 1900 Royal Oaks Drive, Sacramento, CA 95815-3800; telephone; 916-445-3520.
  15. Handbook for Public Playground Safety (current edition). Available from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Washington, DC 20207. Contact the California Department of Health Services for information on current playground safety regulations; telephone 916-322-6283.
  16. Other. See Selected References at the back of this document for other publications that may be of interest to the educational specifications committee.

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Educational Specifications Schedule

Use this worksheet to track start dates, review dates, approval dates, and completion dates.

  1. Data collection.
  2. Development of educational specifications.
  3. Community input.
  4. Evaluations and revisions.
  5. Approvals.
  6. Other.
Budget and Approval for Development of Educational Specifications
  1. Staff, support, consultants, salaries, and travel costs.
  2. Printing and duplicating costs.
  3. Miscellaneous.
Forms for Uniform Data Collection

See chapters 4-7.

Selection of an Architect

An architect should be selected early in the planning process and should be asked to help in selecting the site and translating the educational program into the building program. Because the architect will be a major influence in determining how well the facility serves its intended purpose, he or she should know and appreciate the student group to be served. Selection should, therefore, not be informal or casual. In addition, the selection of architects and other design professionals is subject to the provisions of the California Public Contract Code, Section 10100 et seq. The process must, therefore, be open to any interested party and subject to public review. For additional information please refer to the current California Public Contract Code and contact the California Department of Education, School Facilities Planning Division; telephone 916-322-2470. The American Institute of Architects, California Council, can also supply information and booklets on selecting an architect; telephone 916-448-9082. (See Appendix 4.)

The contract or agreement between the architect and the school district should delineate clearly the responsibilities of both. A good contract, for example, sets forth provisions governing the scope of the project, the responsibilities of the participants, schedules, deliverables (content of plans), interdisciplinary coordination, constructibility and value engineering reviews, and construction observation.

Discussion of Project Delivery

Information on current project delivery methodologies is contained in the Handbook on Project Delivery. (See Appendix 5.)

How educational specifications are written will depend on your selected method of project delivery (design and construction) and should be discussed with a legal adviser.

Each school board should use the project delivery method that is most appropriate for the project and is in accordance with legal constraints.

Project delivery should be discussed early in the development of educational specifications to determine whether alternate forms of project delivery might be advantageous. Nontraditional forms of project delivery may require that educational specifications be more complete so that they can be used as part of the contract documents. (See Appendix 5.)

Prequalification of Bidders

The California Public Contract Code, Section 20111 et seq., allows prequalification of bidders by public agencies and lists requirements for the lowest responsible bidders. However, you should not prequalify bidders until after you have sought legal advice. Section 20111.5 allows prequalification, and Section 20111.5(a) allows for prequalification based on experience.

Procedures to prequalify bidders must be in place before a project is developed. Such procedures may not be undertaken as part of a project. Because prequalification can take a considerable amount of time, it should be undertaken early in the educational specification process.

Selection of a Site

Appropriate site selection is a fundamental starting point in efforts to enhance a school district's educational program. If the placement of neighborhood schools is a concern, then that element must be decided on well before the educational specifications are prepared. Whatever the district holds important in instruction for young people, selecting an appropriate school site must be seen as an integral part of the planning process.

The site or sites selected should also accommodate the needs of the community. How does the site location affect transportation access? Does the location increase congestion to an unacceptable level? Those questions cannot be answered by the district alone. Site selection must be planned in cooperation with other public agencies, developers, and other necessary planning groups. Has the district considered joint use of playfields, assembly spaces, library, and so on with other community agencies? Has the district considered consulting students about site selection and environmental impact studies?

Refer to Department of Education publications on site selection. For additional information contact the School Facilities Planning Division; telephone 916-322-2470.

Process for Development of Documents

Once the committee is constituted, the process for development of the educational specifications documents may be started. The process may be divided into three phases:

  1. Publish and distribute the names and duties of the program director and the educational specifications advisory committee and its subcommittees and consultants. Include the schedule and budget if appropriate.
  2. Distribute data collection forms to users, consultants, and others. Include in the instructions due dates for return. Some data collection efforts become stalled until those involved become knowledgeable as to the meaning and purpose of educational specifications and the reasons for the acquisition of certain data. For that reason discussion meetings or short training sessions for staff persons asked to provide program information are useful. (Data collection forms are suggested in parts I, II, III, IV, and V in chapters 4-7.)
  3. Summarize and compile data collected, again using forms similar to those used in data collection. The summary can be done by an individual or by a writing committee. One of the most efficient, democratic, and time-saving methods is the charrette process, in which all participants meet together for perhaps three days of intensive interaction. All decision makers are present, and all data collected are presented, discussed, and recorded. By the end of the third day, typically, a rough draft of the data is presented to the group for review and approval. Final editing can then be done by an appointed individual or committee.

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Chapter 4 - Suggested Format for Educational Specifications

Educational specifications should convey clear educational objectives to the design team.

Good design solutions depend on careful interpretation of the educational specifications by designers and feedback from members of the educational specifications committee. They require repeated refinement and revisions of the preliminary design documents and prioritization of educational specifications requirements.

A well-designed educational project has a staff that clearly documents project requirements and remains in charge during the design, construction, and occupancy phases, including postoccupancy evaluation. The following is presented to help facilitate the process:

Organization and Content of the Document

Document organization must be logical and user friendly. For example:

Title page:

Educational specifications.
Name of school.
Type of school.
Name of local educational agency.
List of local board of education members.
List of committee members and consultants.
Contact person.
Date of board approval.

Table of Contents:

Part I Project Description.
Part II Project Design Factors: Overall Considerations.
Part III Activity-Area Requirements.
Part IV Summary of Area Relationships.
Part V Summary of Space Requirements.

Suggested Outline for Educational Specifications

The following outline expands the table of contents and gives a clearer picture of what is to be included under educational specifications and how it can be organized.

Part I Project Description
  1. Introduction (project justification and rationale).
  2. The Community.
  3. School Board Policies.
  4. Educational Program.
  5. Staff Support.
  6. Scope of Work and Enrollment Projections.
  7. Budget.
  8. Schedule.
Part II Project Design Factors
  1. Building Design Concepts.
    1. Single Story Versus Multistory Building.
    2. Compact Building Versus Detached, Campus Style.
    3. Open or Closed Campus.
    4. Enrollment.
    5. Phasing.
    6. Integration of Portables.
    7. Community use.
    8. Joint Ventures with Other Agencies.
    9. Multitrack year-round schedule.
    10. Curriculum concepts.
  2. Building Systems.
    1. Acoustics.
    2. Building Support Spaces.
    3. Cleanliness and Health.
    4. Climate Control.
    5. Electrical.
    6. Electronics.
    7. Fire/Life Safety Systems.
    8. Handicapped Access.
    9. Lighting.
    10. Public Access.
    11. Safety.
    12. Security.
    13. Signage.
    14. Structural.
    15. Utilities.
  3. Site Considerations
    1. Landscaping (Ecology: Learning Landscapes/Garden Projects.
    2. Playfields.
    3. Parking and Traffic Circulation.
    4. Policies.
    5. Security.
    6. Unique Site Conditions.
    7. Utilities.
Part III Activity-Area Requirements
  1. Name of Activity Area.
  2. Program Philosophy/Goals/Expected Outcomes.
  3. Curriculum/Anticipated Use.
  4. Discernible Trends/Innovations/Experimental Ideas/Other Planned Uses.
  5. General Requirements/Grouping and Adjacency Considerations.
  6. Space Requirements.
  7. Individual Space Description: Microenvironmental Needs:
    1. Name of Space.
    2. Activities.
    3. Acoustical.
    4. Cabinetry/Built-in Casework.
    5. Ceiling.
    6. Communications/Technology.
    7. Display Spaces.
    8. Doors.
    9. Electrical.
    10. Fencing.
    11. Floors.
    12. Furniture and Equipment.
    13. Gas and Air.
    14. Handicapped Access.
    15. Heating/Cooling/Ventilation.
    16. Lighting.
    17. Parking.
    18. Safety.
    19. Security.
    20. Service Drives.
    21. Walls.
    22. Water.
    23. Windows.
    24. Writing Surface.
    25. Other Needs.
Part IV Summary of Area Relationships
  1. Lists and Diagrams/Sample Bubble Diagrams.
  2. Facility Space Relationships.
    1. Adjacencies.
    2. Views.
    3. Isolation from One Another.

There is a diagram of a sample bubble diagram courtesy of Stafford, King, and Weise, Architects. The bubble illustrates staff parking and public parking along with the administration building, public access spaces, security, and limited access spaces.

Part V Summary of Space Requirements
  1. List of Requirements.
  2. Relationship to Architectural Services Contract (Design Development Phase).
  3. California State School Building Program Requirements.

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Chapter 5 - Annotated Outline for an Educational Specifications Document: Parts I and II

The skeletal outline provided in Chapter 4 can be annotated to give a more detailed picture of the complete format and the items to be included in educational specifications. This annotated outline, consisting of parts I, II, III, IV, and V, can be used as a guide to collect and organize information for the educational specifications document. (Because of the complexity and critical nature of information needed for Part III, a sample data collection for (ES-1) is provided in Chapter 6.)

Part I: Project Description

The project description should be as complete as possible and should be agreed to by all stakeholders. It should describe concepts and philosophies held by the local community that are fundamental to the design and character of the school. Agreed-on concepts and philosophy should be clearly documented for reference.

  1. Introduction
    1. What is the justification or need for the project?
    2. How does this proposed school relate to other schools in the district?
    3. What vision is held as to this project's place in the community?
    4. What environmental and sustainability goals are associated with this project?
    5. Other?
  2. The Community. Provide a brief description and history of the community. Project economic conditions, enrollment, cultural change, residential, growth, commercial growth, and industrial growth over the next five or ten years. Provide a map of the community and surrounding area. Indicate school location, attendance area, and demographics. List resources in the community that can be used by the schools. Questions to be addressed include the following:
    1. What are the population trends?
    2. What are the demographics, including socioeconomic factors?
    3. Is there other pertinent information (community expectations for the school as a community center, recreation facility, and so forth)?
  3. School Board Policies
    1. Which policies have a direct impact on facilities?
      1. Is there community use of facilities and playing fields?
      2. Which teaching/learning methods will affect needs for educational spaces?
      3. What is the board's policy on facility development and maintenance? For building exteriors? For landscaping? For playgrounds?
      4. What are the staffing ratios?
      5. What is to be the total school enrollment?
      6. What is to be the maximum capacity of the school?
      7. What is the grade-level organization?
      8. What justification is required to establish minimum/maximum class size?
      9. What is the impact of district facilities master plan (or five-year plan) on the proposed project?
      10. What is the district policy on busing?
      11. What is the district policy on flexibility and mobility?
        1. Will students, individually or in small or large groups, move within the facility?
        2. Will students move to and from other facilities?
        3. Will equipment move with the students?
        4. How many students go from where to where? At what times? For what purpose?
        5. How are students and equipment transported?
    2. Are there other policies that affect facilities (e.g., multitrack year-round calendar or joint use of all or part of the facilities)?
    3. What support services will be housed at the site for students, family, elders, children in day care, and so forth?
  4. Educational Program
    1. What concepts and philosophies guide the school's curriculum and educational program?
    2. In what ways will the facility contribute to educational functions and promote the occupants' educational, physical, and emotional well-being?
    3. How much flexibility is to be provided to adjust to future technological and curriculum demands?
    4. What are the plans for educational technology? What electronic systems are proposed for the school?
  5. Staff Support. What is the school's staffing organization? What is the number of persons in each category, including part-time employees? The following list can be used to outline the staffing organization. Include the number of each staff listed.
    Instructional:
    Teachers
    Counselors, psychologists, nurses
    Librarians
    Specialists
    Aides
    Volunteers
    Others
    Administrative:
    Principal
    Assistant principal(s)
    Secretaries
    Clerks
    Business manager
    Nurse
    Others
    Operational:
    Supervisors
    Custodians
    Maintenance workers
    Food service workers
    Others
    Community functions:
    Healthy Start
    Child care and development
    Public safety officers
    Probation officers
    Community parks and recreation
    Social services
    Mentors
    Home and after-school programs
    Other functions per school board policy
  6. Scope of Work and Enrollment Projections
    1. Provide a written description of the scope of the work, the nature and extent of facilities construction involved in this project, including any areas to be renovated. Indicate how much future expansion, if any, is to be accommodated.
    2. What are the enrollment projections for the next five years by grade level?
    3. Which grades are to be accommodated in this project? Include preschool and adult students if applicable.
    4. What are needs for future expansion?
  7. Budget
    1. What are your sources of funds?
    2. Are state funds to be used?
      1. Have they been applied for?
      2. Have they been granted?
      3. Is the district self-certifying? See the California Code of Regulations, Title 5, Section 14031 et seq.
      4. What amount of gross square footage is eligible for state funding? Call the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, for the most recent data; telephone 916-322-2470.
    3. What are the district's direct costs? Verify funding sources. The following worksheet includes most items:
      1. Site acquisition
      2. Environmental impact reports
      3. Testing
      4. Preparation of educational specifications
      5. Other
        Include subtotals, district's direct costs
    4. What is the architect's preliminary estimate of costs based on areas developed in parts II, III, IV, and V of the educational specifications? The following worksheet includes most items required in a preliminary estimate:
      1. Site work
      2. construction
      3. Contingency for change orders
      4. Design fees
      5. Other fees
      6. Other expenses
        Subtotal, architect's estimate
        Total project costs (architect's estimate plus district's direct costs)
  8. Schedule. Do you have enough information to develop a project schedule? Include the following phases with start dates, review dates, approval dates, and completion dates:
    1. Educational specifications
    2. Schematic design
    3. Acquisition of funds
    4. Design development
    5. Construction documents
    6. Advertising for bids and bidding
    7. Contract development and award
    8. Permits
    9. Construction
    10. Punch list and correction period (list of items to be corrected by contractor, within a specified time, before district acceptance)
    11. Outfitting of building
    12. Project acceptance
    13. Occupancy
    14. Warranty period (contract time for unsatisfactory conditions to appear in project and be subject to correction by contractor)
    15. Project closeout
    16. Postoccupancy evaluation (see Appendix 9 for additional information)

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Part II: Project Design Factors
  1. Building Design Concepts
    1. Will the building be single story or multistory?
    2. Is a compact design desired? Or are detached, campus-style buildings preferred?
    3. Is the campus open or closed?
    4. Will there be a need for future additions or reductions because of changes in school enrollment?
    5. Will this project be done in phases?
    6. How should portable buildings be integrated into the overall design?
    7. How will planned community use affect design?
    8. Will any construction be done jointly with others?
    9. Will the building be designed to accommodate a multitrack year-round calendar?
    10. What curriculum concepts (e.g., in mathematics, science, social studies) can be incorporated into the building systems as learning tools?
  2. Building Systems (list if not included under "Activity-Area Requirements" in Chapter 6.)
    1. Acoustics. What are sources of noise? Evaluate for health and safety as well as aesthetics.
      1. Uncontrollable exterior noise: low-flying aircraft; heavy traffic; systems-generated noise: heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC); fans and motors; duct turbulence; fluorescent lights; other.
      2. Activity areas that generate noise: noise suppression within spaces, noise isolation, other.
    2. Building Support Spaces. What are required support spaces? Can they be used as learning tools?
      1. Mechanical and electrical spaces.
      2. Equipment repair areas.
      3. Wiring, conduits, and distributions spaces.
      4. Custodial spaces, delivery areas, and storage.
      5. Other.
    3. Cleanliness and Health
      1. Are the finish materials in wall and outdoor and indoor equipment smooth enough not to present an abrasion hazard to passersby and still repel graffiti and vandalism?
      2. Custodial storage for ease of use.
      3. Adequate drinking fountains.
      4. Hand washing facilities.
      5. Adequate toilet facilities (for both sexes; for students, staff, and public).
      6. Vandal-resistant components and hardware.
      7. Air quality, ventilation.
      8. Lighting.
      9. Adequate dining facilities, food preparation areas, and storage.
      10. Other.
    4. Climate Control. What needs for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning are not included under "Activity-Area Requirements" in Chapter 6?
      1. Special climate-control zones.
      2. Indoor air quality.
      3. Energy conservation.
      4. After-hours use and on/off switching.
      5. Year-round education, including sunshades for playground use in the summer.
      6. Other.
    5. Electrical. What are system needs?
      1. Emergency power.
      2. Backup systems.
      3. Energy savings.
      4. Other.
    6. Electronics (Infrastructure Technology). What electronic systems are proposed for the facility? What are system performance and space needs?
      1. Air-conditioning controls (description).
      2. Computer network (description).
      3. Energy management (description).
      4. Lighting controls (description).
      5. Public address (description).
      6. Security (description).
      7. Telephone/intercom (description).
      8. Television/radio (description).
      9. Other (description).
    7. Fire/Life Safety Systems. What are desired performance requirements of safety systems not included under "Activity-Area Requirements" in Chapter 6?
      1. Alarms
      2. Controls
      3. Monitors
      4. Sensors
      5. Other
    8. Handicapped Access. What requirements are not included in Part III? Refer to the California Code of Regulations, Title 24. (Consult the architect.)
      Note: The Americans with Disabilities Act (1992) requires that all facilities and programs to be accessible. (Consult the architect.)
    9. Lighting. What are the interior and exterior lighting requirements not included under "Activity-Area Requirements" in Chapter 6?
      1. Day and night lighting, including use of natural light (solar).
      2. Energy savings.
      3. Parking lots and outdoor spaces (evenly illuminated).
      4. Task lighting.
      5. Other.
    10. Public Access. What are the needs for public-use areas and access?
      1. Normal school hours.
      2. Weekends, holidays, and evenings.
      3. Rest rooms for public use.
      4. Security needs.
      5. Other.
    11. Safety. Building, site, and equipment safety issues are those items that, with thought in selection of materials, design of details, and the maintenance of the facility, can prevent injury in the use of the facility.
      1. Adequate lighting.
      2. Adjacent land use.
      3. Central, easily observed entry to campus.
      4. Comfort of neighbors.
      5. Compliance with the Handbook for Public Playground Safety and current California Department of Health Services regulations.
      6. Ease of supervision: central office; police patrols; neighbors.
      7. Access to emergency vehicles.
      8. Presence of toxic materials in building materials and in finishes on outdoor play equipment.
      9. Fencing and grilles (well designed) and locks to prevent unauthorized or accidental entry.
      10. Implementation of measures addressed in School Area Pedestrian Safety.
      11. Local fire department approval; compliance with regulations from the fire marshall as to the design of buildings, storage of materials, and evacuation procedures and drills.
      12. Provision for safety equipment (e.g., fire hydrants, speed bumps, contrasting paving).
      13. Securing the campus.
      14. Selection and location of plant materials.
      15. Separation of pedestrians, bicycles, automobiles, buses, and delivery vehicles.
      16. Street access.
      17. Traffic volume.
      18. Unauthorized access to rooftops, electrical equipment, and other.
      19. Walking surfaces resistant to slipping and tripping; other surfaces smooth, with no sharp edges.
      20. Window projections and door swings located so that they cannot injure users or passersby.
      21. Criminal Activities
        1. Attention should be given to the neighborhood crime rate.
        2. Have the recommendations in Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action been implemented?
      22. Natural Disasters
        1. School disaster preparedness plan. Education Code sections 35295-35297 require earthquake preparedness planning and indicate that districts may cooperate with other public agencies, such as the Seismic Safety Commission and the Office of Emergency Services. If a district or school preparedness plan does not exist, that fact should be brought to the attention of the school district governing body.
        2. Floods, earthquakes, and other natural disasters may require evacuation; short-term storage of supplies; provision of shelter for displaced persons; and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies
        3. Protection from the elements is needed: snow, rain, wind, heat, and so on.
        4. Other.
    12. Security
      1. Does the location of the site require special security provisions?
      2. Are there governmental requirements or policies?
        1. Local school board (e.g., community use).
        2. Local government (e.g., building codes).
        3. Other.
    13. Signage. Will the signs have a theme? Will they be uniform? Will they be put in particular locations? To what extent does signage need to be multilingual? Types of signs:
      1. Access (ADA compliance), size, and location?
      2. Building name, size, and location?
      3. Directional signs, size, and location?
      4. Parking signs, size, and location?
      5. Room identification, size, and location?
      6. Other, size, and location?
    14. Structural. Which program needs affect the design of the structural system?
      1. Equipment or activities that require specific distances between walls or columns.
      2. Equipment or activities that require specific floor to ceiling heights.
      3. Equipment or activities that require personal or small spaces.
      4. Need for under-floor conduits, pits, or service areas for equipment or site features, such as amphitheaters.
      5. Unique requirements for reinforcing walls, ceilings, or floors.
      6. Other.
    15. Utilities. List all utility needs not included under "Activity-Area Requirements" in Chapter 6.
      1. Gas
      2. Electricity
      3. Telephone
      4. Television and computers
      5. Water
      6. Waste removal and recycling
      7. Energy- and water-conservation systems (e.g., meters)
      8. Other
  3. Site Considerations
    1. Landscaping (Ecology: Learning Landscapes)
      1. What type of landscaping and outdoor play equipment will be provided?
      2. Where will landscaping occur (e.g., on interior courts, at the perimeter, around buildings)?
      3. Will landscaping be low-maintenance and drought resistant?
      4. Can it contribute to learning, as in ecoliteracy? Study of agriculture? Garden projects?
    2. Parking and Traffic Circulation. What are the requirements for pedestrian, truck, school bus, and automobile traffic? Student pickup and drop-off? Parking? Maintenance and operations? Food service and other deliveries? Total parking (define and separate pedestrian paths): automobiles, trucks, buses, bicycles? The following is a list of types of parking and the separation requirements. List the number of vehicles anticipated.
      Staff in separate staff area.
      Visitors parking close to administration.
      Students in separate student area.
      Handicapped parking is required in student, staff, and visitor parking areas.
      Trucks in separate area.
      Buses in separate area.
      Bicycles in separate area.
      Pickup and drop-off the pedestrians to be protected and separate access for kindergarten.
    3. Playfields. (This information is also collected in Chapter 6.) What are the requirements for playfields, courts, play equipment, and structures to fulfill physical education requirements for graduation and provide for extracurricular and community use? Refer to the School Site Analysis and Development Guide. Provide shade for year-round schools.
      1. Type, number, and size.
      2. Location in relationship to other facilities. (See Chapter 6 and "Summary of Space Relationships" in Chapter 7.)
      3. Handicapped and community access.
      4. Other.
    4. Policies. Are there governmental requirements or policies (e.g., community use)?
    5. Security. Does the location of the site require special security provisions?
    6. Unique Site Conditions. Are there conditions that need to be considered or mitigated in project design?
      1. Wind and prevailing weather patterns.
      2. Traffic or other noise sources.
      3. Shaded play areas (heat).
      4. Retaining walls, erosion control.
      5. Special features, (e.g., archaeological or historic areas, benches).
      6. Site drainage, berms.
      7. Other.
    7. Utilities. What utilities are or will be available? Identify those provided by public utilities and those provided on site. Provide names and addresses of utility providers:
      Electricity
      Gas
      Sewer
      Water
      Telephone
      Cable
      Other

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Chapter 6 - Part III of the Annotated Outline: Activity-Area Requirements

Although based on the data generated in parts I and II, Part III is the essential element, the heart of educational specifications. The data in Part III help the architect fully understand the function and physical characteristics of every space in the school so that those spaces can support the educational program.

Data must be provided by each staff person who uses the facility so that planners/architects include everything that is necessary to implement all of the proposed educational program. A similar process should also be developed to encourage student input to project requirements.

Collecting the Data: Sample Form ES-1

Part III brings together the educational program and the building program into a unified statement by describing goals, functions, and activities and their resultant needs for space in the school.

Sample Form ES-1, a suggested tool for organizing the input, is shown below. The form should be filled out by every person on the staff so that all items needed to support educational goals can be included. The form should be presented to all staff members with the instructions (ideally on computer disk), and training sessions in its use should be conducted as necessary.

The form should include space for the user's name, title, department, date, project, and activity area or space name.

The educational specifications committee should then tabulate the data, set priorities, and determine constraints on needs. All users should provide input so that educational support items are not lost in committee and therefore not transmitted to facility programmers and architects.

Immediately after Sample Form ES-1 are lists of typical activity areas or settings for elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools. The lists are provided to give an idea of the multitude of spaces that need to be described. Because the data collection forms may be voluminous, the educational specifications committee will need to develop a system to evaluate the data and determine priorities. All interested parties should have a chance to input their needs for each space.

The data collected here are not all the data required. Questions asked and information called for in parts I, II, IV, and V also need to be answered and collected. Sample Form ES-2, "Information from the Architect and Other Design Consultants," located in Chapter 7, is intended to ensure that all the information needed is collected and understood by the designers.

Sample Form ES-1
Instructions for Collection of Space-User Information

Your input to the preparation of educational specifications is needed so that facility programmers can include everything required to implement or support the proposed curricula.

Please consider all the major and minor activities you participate in and divide requirements into absolute needs and optional wants. The educational specifications committee will compile data and attempt to fill everyone's needs within the constraints of budget and space.

Provide a description of each educational program and service function in your area of responsibility. Indicate where you could easily share a space with other activities. Be explicit. Identify support spaces, such as preparation areas, toilets, storerooms, and space for equipment. Include all desired spaces or parts of spaces. Use a separate form for each distinct space. Use extra sheets for more information as needed.

Activity-Area Requirements

Include name, title, department, date, and project name.

Include the following in the write up:

  1. Name of activity area.
    Identify the area according to its main function (e.g., department, grade level, administration, media center, food service, custodial). See the list of typical activity areas below.
  2. Program Philosophy
    Describe concepts, philosophy, goals, and expected outcomes. Note: This item may not be applicable for some noninstructional areas.
  3. Discernible Trends/Innovations/Experimental Ideas/Other Planned Uses
    The purpose of this information is to help the architect provide flexibility for future needs. One example might be the trend toward increasing the number of computers per pupil in the classroom. Connect, Compute, and Compete: The Report of the California Educational Technology Task Force (California Department of Education, 1996) recommends the following hardware for each classroom: six to eight networked multimedia computers with high-quality monitors and headphones; special interfaces for persons with disabilities; a scanner; a networked laser printer; a 27-inch or larger television monitor; an overhead projector and screen; a telephone; and furniture and security equipment. That document and others, such as the task force reports on both reading and mathematics, can be ordered from the California Department of Education; telephone 1-800-995-4099. The Department has other publications on various topics, such as the academic disciplines and school-to-career or vocational education.
  4. Curriculum/Anticipated Use
    The school's curriculum should be thoroughly reviewed and developed before educational specifications are completed. The review is intended to incorporate and translate curriculum concepts as design criteria in to the architecture of the learning environment. Educational specifications call for decisions regarding the number of classrooms for certain subjects, the relationship of one space to another, special built-in equipment, and a host of physical features that can be made only after the curriculum is known and agreed upon.

    List the courses taught in each activity area and describe curriculum related items, such as the use of technology to deliver and support the curriculum, school-to-career requirements for career/vocational education, academic programs, and populations with unique needs (e.g., limited-English-proficient students and special education students).

    Noninstructional areas should describe anticipated use.
  5. General Requirements/Grouping and Adjacency
    Describe general requirements, groupings, shared spaces, location in relation to other areas, and any desired isolation. Indicate any essential, indirect, or convenient adjacencies and access. Identify the anticipated size of the groups and indicate the number of persons in each grouping. State any need for subdividing or combining an activity area with an adjacent one and the frequency of such adjustment. (Use bubble diagrams if desired. Bubble diagrams show adjacencies of function and are neither drawn to scale nor designed to show relative size. See your architect for examples.)
  6. Space Requirements
    Indicate the seating capacity and approximate square footage needed to accommodate each type of use.

    Sample Format for a High School English Department
    Main Activity Area: English
    Individual Spaces Number of Spaces Number of Staff per Space Total Number of Staff Number of Students per Space Total Number of Students Square Feet per Space Total Number of Square Feet
    Classrooms
    10
    1
    10
    28
    280
    960
    9,600
    Journalism classroom
    1
    1
    1
    28
    28
    960
    960
    Yearbook Office
    1
    0
    0
    10
    10
    150
    150
    Department Office
    1
    11
    (11)
    0
    0
    350
    350
    Department Storage
    1
    0
    0
    0
    0
    150
    150
    Department Total
    14
    13
    11
    66
    318
    n/a
    11,210

    Note: List also number of computers and special equipment required in each space.
  7. Individual Space Description: Microenvironmental Needs
    1. Name of Space. For example: English Classrooms, Yearbook Office, Storage. A separate Item G form will be needed for each individual space.
    2. Activities. Activities elaborate on curriculum and anticipated use and are a critical aspect of school planning. The practices that implement the curriculum or use of a space rely heavily on physical features of the building and can be supported by or impeded by the facility. The architect needs to know what activities are planned for the school and what the physical and environmental requirements of those activities are. List and describe the instructional or noninstructional activities (or both) to be accommodated in this space. Be specific. Describe who does what and how. A few sample activities are listed as follows:
      Instructional
      Large group instruction
      Small group instruction
      Cooperative learning/collaboration
      Individual study
      Computer-assisted instruction
      Cross or shared activities
      Team teaching
      Laboratory/lecture
      Special programs: (e.g., Healthy Start, parent center)

      Noninstructional
      Individual office work
      Clerical work related to attendance area
      Bulk storage of supplies
      Custodial break room/meetings/lunch
      Dining/large meetings/dances
      Student waiting for each service function
      Reading/research/material checkout
      Before-school and after-school programs
      Other community-use programs
    3. Acoustical. Most areas will be standard. Special areas should include statements concerning the need for baffles, insulation, reverberation, and so forth.
    4. Cabinetry/Built-in Casework. Category includes, for example, work counters, cabinets, shelves, stages, risers, storage cubicles, tackboards, chalkboards, AV screens, map rails, and pegboards. Indicate number required, size (dimensions), location, adjustability of shelves, and finish desired. For storage, identify items to be stored. Free-standing cases and cabinets should be listed in the furniture and equipment section, although parking space for movables needs mention here.
    5. Ceiling. Most areas will be standard. Special areas should specify height or other requirements.
    6. Communications/Technology. Describe television, radio, and computer requirements. Include such items as computers, printers, scanners, closed-circuit TV, satellite antenna, provision for fiber optics, cable, computer labs, interschool networking, home-to-school networks, interactive video, videotape, and film. Indicate the need for and type of intercom. List clock requirements and telephone needs, including location; lines, such as extension or direct; and access to pay telephones.
    7. Display Spaces. List type of display, location, and size. Describe items to be displayed and security requirements.
    8. Doors. Most programs will have standard doors. Special programs may need double, dutch, sliding, overhead, extra-wide, metal, or gate-type doors. The need for special doors (e.g., vandal-proof, heavy-duty, handicapped-access) should be delineated.
    9. Electrical. Indicate the number, type, and location of electrical outlets needed. Types of outlets include duplex convenience outlets and 220-volt outlets. The outlets may be located in floors, in walls, above counters, in the ceiling, outside, and in other places.
    10. Fencing. Most programs will indicate N/A (not applicable). Special programs requiring outdoor work or storage should indicate size of area to be fenced, height of fence, type of fence, gates, and entrances.
    11. Floor. Describe floor surface desired for each space. Examples include carpet, ceramic tile, quarry tile, vinyl tile, sealed concrete, and wood.
    12. Furniture and Equipment. List the movable furniture and equipment required for each activity space. State quantities in meaningful terms (number, size, special requirements, and so forth. Do not include built-in casework or built-in instructional aids in this section). Include computers and other special equipment required. Outdoor play equipment should be listed.
    13. Gas and Air. Most programs will indicate N/A. Special programs should specify the number of gas or compressed-air outlets (or both) needed, their location, and special cutoff features.
    14. Handicapped Access. The requirements of the California Code of Regulations, Title 24, and the federal requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1992 are the responsibility of the architect. List the special requirements of your program, such as doors, heights of countertops and fixtures, elevators, or lifts. Please be aware that the ADA requires that programs as well as facilities to be fully accessible.
    15. Heating/Cooling/Ventilation. Describe what is desired. Include statements concerning exhaust fans, vents, exterior windows, fume hoods, dust control, stove hood exhausts, and so forth. Indicate preferred locations for controls. Consider the impact of energy conservation.
    16. Lighting. Describe the type of lighting desired. Describe the type of controls needed (e.g., area, rheostat, master). Describe special needs (e.g., spotlights, outdoor lights, color, special needs related to computer monitors and projection screens).
    17. Parking. Most programs will indicate N/A. General parking will be included in Part II, "Project Design Factors: Overall Considerations." But special programs may need to specify additional parking for parents, aides, and so forth. Special programs should state need according to days per school week, weekends, hours, frequency, and number of persons and vehicles, including bicycles.
    18. Safety. Most programs will indicate N/A. Special programs utilizing chemicals and machinery will need to specify such items as eye washes, safety showers, panic buttons, alarms, sensors, monitors, and extinguishers.
    19. Security. Most security provisions will be included in Part II, "Project Design Factors: Overall Considerations." Special programs may include after-hours use, special locks, surveillance, and so forth. It may also be desirable to provide panic buttons or telephones or both for teacher use in classrooms.
    20. Service Access Drives. Most programs will indicate N/A. Special programs should state the need for service access drives, the manner in which they will be used, and their location.
    21. Walls. Describe the type of walls needed to separate spaces. Examples include tackboard surface, permanent, folding, demountable, and sight dividers. If movable, state frequency of use.
    22. Water. Describe the number, type, height, and location of sinks desired, such as single, double, utility, and hand washing. Indicate the need for cold and hot water. Include the need for and locations of hose bibs. Special areas may need grease traps, floor drains, clay traps, temperature controls, and drinking fountains.
    23. Windows. Include statements about the desirability of exterior windows. Identify their location, height, and light control. Describe interior window needs, such as the number, type, location, and size of observation windows.
    24. Writing Surfaces. Describe the type, location, and size of writing surfaces, such as markerboards, chalkboards, and screens.
    25. Other Needs.

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Typical Activity Areas: Reference List for Form ES-1

Individual activity areas are subsumed under the main headings for activity areas. These are examples only, nomenclature and spaces will vary depending on the program in use.

Activity Areas Elementary School Middle School High School
Kindergarten classrooms/learning environment
Yes
N/A
N/A
Kindergarten work sinks
Yes
N/A
N/A
Kindergarten toilets
Yes
N/A
N/A
Kindergarten teacher planning
Yes
N/A
N/A
Kindergarten storage
Yes
N/A
N/A
Kindergarten playground
Yes
N/A
N/A
Kindergarten garden/environmental area
Yes
N/A
N/A
Grades 1-3 classrooms/learning environments
Yes
N/A
N/A
Grades 4/6 classrooms/learning environments
Yes
Yes
N/A
General classrooms English
N/A
Yes
Yes
Language arts learning environment foreign language classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Language arts learning environment speech classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Language arts learning environment remedial reading classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Language arts learning environment journalism classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Language arts learning environment journalism storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Language arts learning environment yearbook office
N/A
N/A
Yes
Language arts learning environment teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
Language arts learning environment department storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
General classrooms mathematics
N/A
Yes
Yes
Mathematics learning environment department storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Mathematics learning environment teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
General classrooms social studies
N/A
Yes
Yes
Social studies learning environment teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
Social studies learning environment department storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
General classrooms others
N/A
Yes
Yes
Science learning environment general classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Science classroom/lab/learning environment material storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Science classroom/lab/learning environment project storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Science classroom/lab/learning environment preparation/storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Science classroom/lab/learning environment teacher planning
N/A
Yes
Yes
Science classroom/lab/learning environment career center
N/A
Yes
Yes
Science learning environment biology labs
N/A
N/A
Yes
Science learning environment biology prep/projects
N/A
N/A
Yes
Science learning environment biology storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Science learning environment chemistry lab
N/A
N/A
Yes
Science learning environment chemistry storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Science learning environment general storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Business learning environment typing classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Business learning environment computer literacy classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Business learning environment accounting classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Business learning environment general business classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Business learning environment teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
Business learning environment department storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment
N/A
Yes
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment teacher planning
N/A
Yes
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment ceramics
N/A
Yes
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment kiln
N/A
Yes
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
Art classroom/learning environment department storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Ceramics classroom/learning environment
N/A
N/A
Yes
Photography lab/classroom/learning environment
N/A
N/A
Yes
Darkroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Work sinks
Yes
N/A
Yes
Small-group instruction
Yes
Yes
Yes
Teacher planning - general
Yes
Yes
Yes
Storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Music classroom/learning environment instrument storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Music classroom/learning environment practice rooms
Yes
Yes
Yes
Music classroom/learning environment music library/storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Music classroom/learning environment teacher planning
Yes
Yes
Yes
Computer laboratory teacher planning
Yes
Yes
Yes
Band classroom/learning environment ensemble
N/A
Yes
Yes
Band classroom/learning environment practice rooms
N/A
Yes
Yes
Band classroom/learning environment instrument storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Band classroom/learning environment material storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Vocal music classroom/learning environment practice rooms
N/A
Yes
Yes
Vocal music classroom/learning environment music library storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Vocal music classroom/learning environment robe storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Performing arts vocal music room
N/A
N/A
Yes
Performing arts uniform storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Music library storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Performing arts drama classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Performing arts stage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Performing arts dressing/makeup
N/A
N/A
Yes
Performing arts costume/prop storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Performing arts/vocal teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
Performing arts toilets
N/A
N/A
Yes
Computer laboratory storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Computer laboratory computer areas throughout
Yes
Yes
Yes
Computer storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special education classrooms/learning environments
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special education teacher planning
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special education resource specialist
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special education special day classes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special education facilities for severely handicapped
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special education speech therapist/psychologist
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special education storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Special education equipment storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
School-to-career classroom/learning environment technology lab
N/A
Yes
Yes
School-to-career classroom/learning environment material storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
School-to-career classroom/learning environment project storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
School-to-career classroom/learning environment teacher planning
N/A
Yes
Yes
School to college/career center classroom learning environment
N/A
N/A
Yes
School to college/career center library
N/A
N/A
Yes
Home economics learning environment foods classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Home economics learning environment preparation workroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Home economics learning environment clothing classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Home economics learning environment consumer classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Home economics learning environment teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
Home economics learning environment department storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment auto shop
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment wood shop
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment electronics lab
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment technology lab
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment drafting room/cad lab
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment agriculture classroom
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment agriculture shop
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment greenhouse
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment conference/projects
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment teacher planning
N/A
N/A
Yes
Industrial tech learning environment department storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Administration reception (general)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration principal's office
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration principal's secretary
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration vice-principal's office
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration clerical areas
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration deans' offices
N/A
Yes
Yes
Administration registrar clerk
N/A
N/A
Yes
Administration attendance reception
N/A
Yes
Yes
Administration attendance clerk
N/A
N/A
Yes
Administration bookkeeping area
N/A
Yes
Yes
Administration production/workroom
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration records/vault
N/A
Yes
Yes
Administration school store
N/A
Yes
Yes
Administration student activities
N/A
Yes
Yes
Administration conference room
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration records storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration materials storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration student waiting area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration teachers' workroom/mail
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration teachers' lounge/dining
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration nurse's office
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration nurse's waiting area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration cot room
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration nurse's toilet
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration staff toilets
Yes
Yes
Yes
Administration public toilets
N/A
N/A
Yes
Administration parent center
Yes
Yes
Yes
Student Services
N/A
N/A
Yes
Athletic Director's Office
N/A
N/A
Yes
Storage for Student Store
N/A
N/A
Yes
Student Body Officer's Room
N/A
N/A
Yes
Cashier's Office
N/A
N/A
Yes
Guidance reception area
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance counselors' offices
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance counseling clerk
N/A
N/A
Yes
Guidance secretarial area
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance student records/storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance career center
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance speech/psychologist
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance hearing testing
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance police/probation office
N/A
Yes
Yes
Guidance confidential conference
N/A
Yes
Yes
Food service cafeteria
N/A
N/A
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service floor area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service chair/table storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service kitchen/food preparation
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service kitchen storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service garbage disposal/storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service recycling area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service serving areas
N/A
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service convenience kitchen
N/A
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service dressing room/lockers
N/A
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service delivery service area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room stage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room stage work/storage area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room audiovisual equipment area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service student toilets
Yes
Yes
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service office
N/A
N/A
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service dry storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service refrigerator/freezer
N/A
N/A
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service dishwashing
N/A
N/A
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service public toilets
N/A
N/A
Yes
Multipurpose room/food service staff toilets
N/A
N/A
Yes
Faculty dining room
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special programs storage/day care
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special programs child care and development (before-school and after-school activities)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special programs Healthy Start
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special programs parent center
Yes
Yes
Yes
Special program community use
N/A
Yes
Yes
Special programs adult education
N/A
N/A
Yes
Special programs student organizations
N/A
N/A
Yes
Media center/library community use
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library reading area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library textbook storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library special-use classroom/learning environment
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library computer/technology area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library AV storage
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library librarian/clerk planning
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library material checkout area
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library central control for CCTV production and distribution
Yes
Yes
Yes
Media center/library stacks
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library periodical storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library technical processing
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library conference
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library media production lab
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library dark room
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library copying room
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library viewing room
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library media director's office
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library secretarial office
N/A
Yes
Yes
Media center/library toilet
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities hardcourts
Yes
Yes
Yes
Outdoor facilities basketball
Yes
Yes
Yes
Outdoor facilities volleyball
Yes
Yes
Yes
Outdoor facilities tetherball
Yes
N/A
N/A
Outdoor facilities apparatus area (e.g., play equipment, climbing area)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Outdoor facilities soccer
Yes
Yes
Yes
Outdoor facilities softball/baseball
Yes
Yes
N/A
Outdoor facilities garden/environmental areas
Yes
Yes
Yes
Outdoor facilities football/track
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities general playfield
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities stadium/bleachers
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities varsity baseball
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities JV baseball
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities softball
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities tennis
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities field house
N/A
N/A
Yes
Outdoor facilities swimming pool
N/A
N/A
Yes
Physical education gymnasium
N/A
N/A
Yes
Physical education gymnasium lockers
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium showers
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium drying area
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium toilets
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium laundry/towel area
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education weight room
N/A
N/A
Yes
Physical education dance room
N/A
N/A
Yes
Physical education team room
N/A
N/A
Yes
Physical education gymnasium P.E. equipment storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium gymnastic storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Physical education gymnasium athletic equipment storage
N/A
N/A
Yes
Physical education gymnasium lobby/ticket booth
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium public toilets
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium teacher planning
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium teacher locker/shower/toilet
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education gymnasium classroom
N/A
Yes
Yes
Physical education concessions
N/A
N/A
Yes
Patios dining
Yes
Yes
Yes
Patios learning environment
Yes
Yes
Yes
Patios recreation/group focal areas
Yes
Yes
Yes
Custodial office
N/A
N/A
Yes
Custodial central room
Yes
Yes
Yes
Custodial satellite closets
Yes
Yes
Yes
Custodial electrical equipment space
Yes
Yes
Yes
Custodial mechanical equipment space
Yes
Yes
Yes
Custodial telephone and computer equipment rooms
Yes
Yes
Yes
Custodial flammable storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Custodial equipment storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Custodial receiving/storage
N/A
Yes
Yes
Toilets staff
Yes
Yes
Yes
Toilets students
Yes
Yes
Yes
Toilets public
Yes
Yes
Yes
Toilets for public events (if applicable)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Performance auditorium
N/A
N/A
Yes
Amphitheater
N/A
N/A
Yes
Little theater
N/A
N/A
Yes
Lecture halls
N/A
N/A
Yes

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Chapter 7 - Parts IV and V of the Annotated Outline: Summaries of Area Relationships and Space Requirements

Communication of the information generated in parts I, II, and III is the essential purpose of the educational specifications document. Summarizing data in lists and diagrams will help clarify requirements for the architect and other interested parties.

Part IV: Summary of Area Relationships

Bubble diagrams of area relationships, including internal relationships, should be developed in cooperation with the district's architect. The following is an example of the type of information that might be useful in a preliminary list. Different program philosophies will require different relationships depending on the level of consideration: (1) health and safety; (2) function; and (3) psychological comfort or aesthetic satisfaction. Listed headings for activity-area groupings are common for most elementary and secondary.

Area Relationships
Area Near View to Isolate from
Administration Main entrance, health, guidance* Main entrance, kindergarten, student drop, bicycle parking Workroom, music, shops, athletics, dining
Art Photography, industrial arts Patios N/A
Athletic Fields Gymnasium, parking, street access N/A Academic classrooms, administration, driveways
Auditorium Street access, parking lots, main entrance, music Patios Gymnasium, industrial arts, library/media
Book storage Classrooms, library/media center N/A General storage, custodial storage
Career and technology education Classrooms, library /media center, industrial technology N/A Music, athletics
Classrooms Library/media center, computer lab N/A Music, shops, athletics
Conference rooms Administration, guidance N/A Laboratories, shops, music, dining, athletics
Custodial workroom and storage Utilities, storage, receiving N/A Classrooms, administrations, library/media, main entrance
Dining (Cafeteria) Teachers' lounge, kitchen Storage, receiving Patios Administration, classrooms
Driveways Administration, main entrance, storage and receiving, music, auditorium, cafeteria, athletic fields N/A Play areas, classrooms
Guidance Administration, main entrance, career center N/A Direct access to administration
Health services Administration, main entrance, supervision N/A N/A
Homemaking Art Patios Food Service**
Industrial arts Art Patios Auditorium, administration, classrooms, music
Kindergarten and day care Separate play area, driveway, rest rooms, storage, cafeteria Patios Other classrooms, traffic
Library/media center Classrooms, computer lab Patios Auditorium, athletic areas, music, shops
Main entrance Administration, access streets, parking, athletic fields, auditorium, gymnasium, maintenance N/A Storage and receiving, shops, playgrounds
Music Auditorium Patios Administration, classrooms, library
Patios Administration, art, auditorium, cafeteria, library/media center, science N/A Athletics, shops
Rest Rooms Athletics, classrooms, playgrounds, public areas, supervision N/A N/A
Science Growing areas, laboratories, library/media center, nature areas N/A N/A
Service Areas Access drives, storage and receiving N/A Playfields, classrooms, other buildings
Shops Access drives, storage and receiving N/A Other buildings
Special education Library/media center, other classrooms N/A Athletics, shops

*Consider a separate student service center, with guidance, health, police, probation, and other counseling and social services located for privacy.
**For programs that do not want to integrate homemaking food classes with food service.

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Part V: Summary of Space Requirements

When all the necessary information on space requirements has been collected, a summary must be developed. The summary should include the net square footage required for each activity area and estimates of the amount of space needed for circulation, mechanical devices, toilet areas, wall thicknesses, and so forth. Added together, the figures will provide the total gross square footage required for the facility. The summary should be prepared with the assistance of the district architect. Note: The writing of educational specifications is often an extra charge in an architectural contract. The contract with the architect should be negotiated to include all services required, and all contracts should be executed with the aid of legal counsel.

If the planned project is to be built with state funds (wholly or in part), contact the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, for the latest information on allowable spaces for various functions; telephone 916-322-2470.

Sample Form ES-2
Information from the Architect and Other Design Consultants

Name:
Title:
Firm or department:
Date:
Project:

Suggested Procedure

Your input to educational specifications preparation is invited to help ensure that everything necessary to implement or support the proposed educational program is included in the project.

Please review all of the information presented by the staff in Form ES-1 (or whatever equivalent form the staff may be using) and in the educational specifications (as described in parts I, II, III, and IV of this document), the preparation of which may now be under way in the district.

Please be aware that the preparers are not design professionals that the documents are not to be assumed to include everything necessary for the facility.

The district's educational specifications committee will inform you of educational needs. It will be your privilege and responsibility to augment such information with architectural data necessary to the project and to provide a facility, within budget and space constraints, that meets all requirements.

Before you begin to design the project, please request the information you need and pose the questions you want answered regarding each educational program and service function.

Using the annotated outline in chapters 5-7 as a guide, please consider the following questions:

Part I Project Description
  1. Do you have all the information you need concerning:
    1. Project rationale?
    2. The community?
    3. School board policies?
    4. The educational program?
    5. Staff support?
    6. Scope of work?
    7. Budget?
    8. Schedule?
  2. Do you have copies of all maps, reports, surveys, and so forth required to describe the site and community?
  3. Do you have copies of the environmental impact reports, soils reports, and other data required to design the project? If not, request from the district such data that may be applicable to the project under consideration.
Part II Project Design: Overall Considerations
  1. Do you have all the information you need concerning:
    1. Building design concepts?
    2. Building systems?
    3. Site considerations?
    4. Project delivery methods (see Appendix 5)?
  2. What additional information do you need?
Part III Activity-Area Requirements

Item A. Activity Area
Do you have a Form ES-1 (or its equivalent) for each activity area? Is the information complete?

Item B. Program Philosophy
Are concepts, philosophy, and goals clearly stated for your purposes?

Item C. Discernible Trends
Have trends, innovations, experimental ideas, and other planned uses been described so that implementation can be accommodated in design?

Item D. Curriculum/Anticipated Use
Is the educational function and anticipated use of each area described so that you would be able to develop design concepts and solutions to support the educational requirements?

Item E. General Requirements/Groupings and Adjacency Considerations

  1. Can you design the space that is needed to accommodate educational requirements? Are requirements for grouping, subdividing, and combining activity areas and the frequency of such adjustment included?
  2. Can you identify adjacencies or isolation from other activities?
  3. Can you identify essential, indirect, and convenient space relationships and access with the information you have?
  4. Prepare bubble diagrams for each distinct grouping or subgrouping of activity areas and discuss with committee.

Item F. Space Requirements
Do you have the number of users, or person capacity, and approximate square footage needed to accommodate each type of use in the activity area?

Item G. Individual Space Description: Microenvironmental Needs

  1. Do you have a description for each individual space?
  2. From the activities as described, can you imagine every detail of what does on in this space so that you would be able to develop architectural concepts and solutions to support the educational requirements? Do you have all information on special requirements usual and unique to each activity area as described in the following items:
  3. Acoustical?
  4. Cabinetry/built-in casework?
  5. Ceiling?
  6. Communications/technology?
  7. Display spaces?
  8. Doors?
  9. Electrical?
  10. Fencing?
  11. Floor?
  12. Furniture and equipment?
  13. Gas and air?
  14. Handicapped access?
  15. Heating/cooling/ventilation?
  16. Lighting?
  17. Parking?
  18. Safety?
  19. Security?
  20. Service drives?
  21. Walls?
  22. Water?
  23. Windows?
  24. Writing surfaces?
  25. Other?
Part IV Summary of Space Relationships
  1. Do you have a copy of the matrix prepared to show space relationships?
  2. Prepare bubble diagrams and discuss with committee.
Part V Summary of Space Requirements
  1. Do you have enough information to prepare a summary of space requirements?
  2. Prepare a summary and discuss with committee

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Conclusion

After an educational specifications document has been developed, an evaluation of the process and the document should begin. A properly executed document provides a useful tool for evaluating every phase of the project: preliminary design, design, construction document development, construction, and occupancy.

The development of educational specifications also provides an opportunity for school districts to define their goals and elicit community involvement. When clearly stated and published, the specifications can be a powerful tool for districts to use in preparing the educational community and the community at large for twenty-first century schools.

The process of developing the document should, then, be open to the community. The school district should provide opportunities for public comments early on; hold public forums to discuss issues; and encourage the local media (newspapers and television) to comment on the document. The result can be greater community ownership and support of the district's educational vision.

While teaching and learning are becoming more complex and exciting as society changes, the number of diverse stakeholders in the educational process has been increasing dramatically. Each of those groups has its own requirements. By keeping those needs in mind as educational specifications are being prepared for each new or remodeled facility, our schools can play a major role in building a strong community in which all groups have a part.

Appendix 1 Master Planning and Overall Goals

What is Facility Master Planning? Why Do It?

The preparation of educational specifications for a new facility is an opportunity to update the district's facilities master plan. It is also an opportunity to review the overall goals of the school and the district. The updating should be completed before the process of developing educational specifications is begun.

A facilities master plan should be a working document adopted by formal resolution of the school board after public hearings. Updated frequently to keep pace with developing trends and financing alternatives, it should be amended as the district philosophy changes or new programs or facilities are needed. The facilities master plan should also provide the basis for budgeting future capital improvements and creating and implementing plans for financing facilities. Further, it should justify the collection of developer fees and provide documentation of facility needs and costs that can be used in legal cases.

The facilities master plan should define and describe which facilities are needed to support the program.

Components of a Facilities Master Plan

Appendix 2 - Remodeling Facilities

A remodeling project requires the same approach to educational specifications as does a new facility. First, educational issues and trends in curriculum requirements, programs and practices, and community involvement must be addressed and evaluated.

Second, demographics and enrollment projections must be determined. Census data should be used to create a picture of the school attendance area or the district (or both) as to income level, educational attainment, age distribution, ethnic and racial distribution, and housing units. Local city and county planners can provide data on future (planned) growth or non growth. Unemployment rates, the financial outlook of the district, bond capacity, and the district's assessed valuation may impact programs and funding availability, thus determining facility needs.

Third, a facilities needs assessment can be conducted by engaging a team of engineers and architects to inspect existing facilities and thereby provide an assessment of the condition of the school(s). Examine major building systems, site conditions, compliance with the American with Disabilities Act, and health and life safety codes.

Inspect all spaces for conformance with current standards in lighting, acoustics, square footage, heating and cooling, electrical outlets, and adaptability for future technology systems. Rate according to current standards and develop options for remediating identified problems. Estimate cost to bring the facilities up to standards. Anticipate ongoing maintenance and upkeep costs. (See the Facilities Performance Profile. See also Sample Form ES-3, "Facilities Inspection Summary," in Appendix 10 of this publication.)

Develop scenarios to determine whether remodeling or building new facilities is more cost-effective. Examples follow:

Use value engineering concepts for comparison of options to make decisions that get the most for the facility dollar. For instance, it is not cost-effective to spend one-half as much to remodel as to build new if the remodeling extends the life of the facility only a few years and a new school would give another 30 years of service.

Develop a standard district facilities inspection summary from similar to the one shown in Appendix 10 to help evaluate existing facilities. Use the inspection summary form to record postoccupancy evaluation.

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Appendix 3 - Public Relations

The district should have an ongoing program to reach the community for support. Appendix 9 of this document, in the paragraphs on orientation, refers to public information programs designed to promote acceptance of the educational program and its relationship to the facility. Activities to inform people about the school include media features, brochures, and open-house tours that discuss and illustrate the ways the educational community works to educate children. The need for new educational facilities must be explained. The district's best outreach people may be the students themselves. Early involvement of children in planning schools means they will take the message home with enthusiasm. The more the community is connected to its schools, the more support it will give.

Financing new construction, including remodeling, requires public money. The public needs to understand why the facilities are absolutely necessary to support the educational program.

Community outreach communication should be open and two-way. Ways to garner the support needed include cooperation with the local media (newspapers and television); sponsorship of public forums; invitations to the public to sit on committees, such as educational specifications or master plan development committees; and distribution of written communications available for review by the public. Support is easier to obtain if advocates are accessible and responsive to the public.

Cooperation with the Media

The California School Boards Association (CSBA) publishes documents on public relations and related topics. School Boards, Public Relations, and the Media (CSBA, 1988) discusses in practical terms how to interact with the media to develop a public relations program that works.

Schools are subject to the scrutiny, comment, and criticism of the press. How this concern affects a school district depends on the district's development of an effective communications plan. In the CSBA publication mentioned previously, Carl F. Hauver, former president of the Public Relations Society of America, states that "public relations is the management function which provides the professional skills necessary to communicate truth effectively to concerned publics."

Doing good work is not enough; it must be effectively communicated. The following are concepts that are more fully explored in the CSBA publication:

Public Forums

Formal face-to-face programs are a necessary part of an effective public relations program. They may be the most important part of communication. Various avenues that need to be considered are as follows:

Public Participation

The development of a new educational specification is an opportunity to invite members of the public to participate in the educational process and thus become vested in the school. Opportunities for public participation include the following:

Written Communication

Every written communication from a school, a central office, or a school board is a part of the public relations plan (or nonplan) of the district. Included are report cards, daily correspondence, and other necessary communications. Each communication should be easy to read and accurate, address the concerns of the addressee, and reflect positively on the district. Content must be coherent and have correct spelling and grammar. In addition to necessary communication, the following list includes specific items that can be included in the public relations plan for the district:

Every written piece of material from each school should be reviewed with public relations in mind. Media presentations should be responded to with thanks or rebuttal as appropriate. The public relations impact of all media presentations should be evaluated and immediately corrected if there are errors.

Conclusion

A public relations plan begins at the school site. The front office should be neat, organized, and welcoming. Reception personnel must be caring and responsive. Each site should have an ongoing training program in public relations emphasizing the responsibilities of every staff member. Other topics to be considered at the school site include the following:

Notification to neighbors of events can help create friends of the school. Each school can increase the credibility of the school system through small acts of consideration. Being a good neighbor and keeping lines of communication open are good public relations.

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Appendix 4 - Selecting the Architect

Because the architect will be a major influence in determining how well the facility serves its intended purpose, he or she should know and appreciate the student group to be served. Selection of the architect should not, therefore, be informal. In addition, the selection of an architect and other design professionals is subject to the State Contract Act. The process must, therefore, be open to any interested party and subject to public review (see the California Public Contract Code). The following paragraphs are based on the publication titled Selecting Architects for Public Projects (American Institute of Architects, 1970) and publications developed by the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education.

Selection Committee

Ensure that the selection committee represents the diversity present in the community and different points of view (educators; architects and other planning professionals; community leaders; parents; teachers; and, perhaps, students). Subcommittees include the following:

Selection Process

A fair and open selection process ensures consideration of the best architects for the project and includes the following:

Announcement

Advertise the project in the State Contract Register, in the bulletin of the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects, and in the area's most circulated general newspapers. Notify the builders' exchange or other public plan room in your area. It is important that the announcement be published widely. For the advertisement to attract the most suitable firms, it should include type of project, scope of services required, budget and time constraints, evaluation criteria, forms on which statements of interest and qualifications are to be submitted, submittal deadline, and district contact person.

Request for Qualifications

Request for qualifications forms should be sent to all interested firms. The forms package should include everything needed to evaluate the information and emphasize that submittals in any other form will not be considered.

The task of comparing the qualifications and experience of competitors is difficult. Requiring the use of standard forms will simplify the process. The following may be helpful: standards forms SF 254, "Architects-Engineers and Related Services Questionnaire" (Stock number 7540-01-152-8073) and SF 255, "Architects-Engineers and Related Services Questionnaire for Specific Projects" (Stock number 7540-01-152-8074.) Both are available from Forms and Publications, U.S. General Services; telephone 1-800-786-0258; FAX 1-800-603-8357.

Note: Form SF 254 provides an overall profile of the firm's size, experience, volume of business, and area of specialization. Form SF 255 lists the firm's experience with projects of similar scope and the special expertise of personnel who would be assigned to the project.

Forms B-431, a standard questionnaire, is available from the American Institute of Architects, 1735 New York Avenue, N.W., Washington, DC 20006-5292; telephone 202-626-7475.

The district should develop a specially designed form requiring additional detailed information as required by the project or the district's governing board.

Evaluation

Evaluation of submittals is done by the proposal screening subcommittee and should be documented. A record of who did the preliminary screening should be kept of all submittals , especially unsuccessful ones.

In the effort to procure the best architect, the screening process should be uncompromising in two areas. Late submittals, incomplete submittals, and submittals not on the required forms should be returned to the sender with an explanatory note.

If a firm cannot be responsive to district needs in relatively minor requirements, it may be unresponsive in more critical ways on a building project.

Properly submitted and timely submittals should be reviewed with documented criteria, including specific interest in the project, the relevant school experience and expertise of the architect and consultants, performance on previous projects, the availability of key personnel, projected workloads, and any other criteria of interest to the district.

Each of the criteria should be ranked separately. If items are incomplete or are omitted without explanation, the submittal should be rejected at the discretion of the school district. Arrange or list the remaining proposals in ranks that reflect the relative responsiveness of the submittals. Pass this list to the preliminary interview subcommittee, which will select a manageable number of firms for reference checks, personal interviews, and project and office visits. Check several references because not all factors that make for unsuccessful projects are within the control of the designers.

Preliminary Interviews

Firms invited to a preliminary interview should be given all available information; for example, the scope of the project, the size and makeup of the interviewing panel, the criteria for ranking, and the division of time between formal presentation and question/answer period. The project scope documents should expand on the original advertisement and include a copy of the educational specifications. The interview panel should be identified by occupation and title if not by name.

Ranking criteria to identify the best qualified firm might include such items as design ability, philosophy, experience, demonstrated interest in the project, understanding of project requirements, relevance of previous projects presented during the interview, availability of key personnel, and schedule and budget performance on previous projects.

When the preliminary interviews are complete, select several of the top firms and visit some of their completed projects. Examine postoccupancy evaluations if available. Visit offices to see staff in action and to examine typical plans, specifications, and other documents. Ask questions about office procedures in handling schedules and construction supervision. Select the top three to five firms acceptable to the preliminary interview subcommittee and present the names to the district's governing board for final interview.

Selection

Selection of the top-ranked firm is then made by the district governing board. Negotiation of the architect's compensation completes the selection process. (For more on this subject, see Compensation at U.S. Architectural Firms ([American Institute of Architects, 1977].)

Debriefing

Notify unsuccessful firms. Their considerable effort and expense in applying should be appreciated and acknowledged by the district. Provide debriefing if requested. Unsuccessful firms need to be educated in the requirements of the district. Explanations of why a firm is unsuccessful are necessary to dispel appearances of favoritism and to encourage future participation in the submittal process. Be prepared to explain your criteria for selection and tell how the individual firm did not meet your needs. Discussing the successful firm's presentation with others should be limited to indicating that the winner was able to meet your criteria better than other contestants.

A well-defined district policy on procuring design services is necessary for having good response to requests for proposals. If your agency does not have a formal procedure and the above examples do not fit your needs, contact the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, or the local chapter of the American Institute of Architects (or both) for advice and counsel. Additional information can also be obtained from the American Institute of Architects, California Council, 1303 J Street, Suite 200, Sacramento, CA 95814; telephone 916-448-9082; FAX 916-442-5346.

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Appendix 5 - Project Delivery

The district should explore the subject of project delivery during its development of educational specifications to determine whether seeking new forms of project delivery would be advantageous. How educational specifications are written will depend on your selected method of project delivery (design plus construction) and should be discussed with a legal adviser early in the project. Each school board should use the project delivery methodology that is most appropriate for the project and is in accordance with legal constraints.

A guide to the use of current project delivery methodologies is provided in the Handbook on Project Delivery. The following paragraphs present an overview of the subject beginning with the executive summary from the Handbook:

When hiring the team to design and build a building today, an owner will find that there are many different ways to structure the work. Within the building industry, conventional ways of doing work are being challenged in attempts to save time, spend less money, reduce litigation, create less conflict, or heighten the building's quality. While minor variations make each working arrangement unique, the major differences fall into one of three categories: traditional methods, construction management, and design/build. Each of these different project delivery options - meaning, how the various individuals organize their participation and responsibilities to complete a building project - creates certain advantages and holds potential limitations. In the case of each district project, the relative merits of the employable delivery systems must be evaluated. The methods can be characterized by various means, most clearly by the number of central players: design-bid-build has three, construction management four, and design/build two. This executive summary outlines the key characteristics, phases, uses, and relationships which distinguish one project delivery option from another and which are described extensively in the Handbook on Project Delivery.

  1. Traditional Methods
    Most building projects follow a traditional model in which an owner hires an architect at the beginning of the process to develop a design and prepare the documents needed to build it. According to convention the owner then hires a general contractor to construct the building that has been designed. The owner thus has two separate contracts with two unrelated parties, both of whom are expected to act in the owner's interest. The architects' fee is proportional to the services delivered, and the contractor's compensation is built into the cost of construction.
    1. Design-Bid-Build. The most common form of project delivery, design-bid-build, is characterized by its three phases, its two independent contracts with the owner, and the linear sequencing of the work. There are three prime players: owner, architect, and contractor.

      The typical process involves three phases. First, the owner engages the architect to design and prepare construction documents for the project. Second, the owner uses those documents in conducting the bidding process, after which a contractor is selected and cost commitments are made. Third, the owner hires the contractor to build the project.

      This method is the conventional one common to all types of undertakings, particularly those initiated by public clients required to select the low-bidding contractor. Its principal advantages are its widespread use and familiarity, the clear roles assigned to each party, the thorough determination of design and cost prior to construction, and the linear process, which is easy for owners to manage.
    2. Negotiated Select Team. This delivery option, sometimes called design-assist, is a variant of design-bid-build. The bidding process is eliminated. This option is not appropriate for school projects except in limited emergencies and should not be undertaken without legal advice. In this option the owner, at the beginning of the project, uses an informal process to select an architect and a contractor with whom fees are negotiated. The three prime players - owner, architect, and contractor - work together cooperatively from the project's inception.
  2. Construction Management
    Construction management is a broad term covering a variety of project delivery scenarios in which a construction manager is added to the building team to oversee such issues as schedule, costs, construction, project management, and building technology. The construction manager, who may be trained in construction or may be an architect, contractor, or developer, can serve in different capacities with varying degrees of authority depending on how the project is structured. A fee is paid to the construction manager relative to the services to be performed, which may range from advising during a particular phase of the building process to acting as the owner's agent in all matters. Construction management may be appropriate for relatively complex projects, for projects in which budget or schedule must be closely monitored, and for those requiring extensive coordination of consultants or subcontractors. It should be undertaken by school districts only with legal advice and after careful development of contracts with the construction manager, the architect, and the contractor. The contracts should be designed as a set so that liability is not obscured and duties are not duplicated.
    1. Construction Manager as Adviser. This project delivery option is characterized by the additional consultant brought to the building team; that is, a construction manager who acts as adviser to the owner. Although the authority given to this adviser varies (including helping to select the architect), the architect and contractor generally maintain their conventional roles. There are four prime players: owner, construction manager, architect, and contractor.

      The construction manager is added to the team at the outset of the project or on the completion of the design. This option proceeds in three phases. First, the owner contracts with an architect to prepare the design and construction documents. When hired in this phase, the construction manager adviser will oversee the design as to its implications for cost, schedule, and constructibility. Second, construction documents are used for construction bidding or negotiations. A contractor is selected with the advice of the construction manager, and cost commitments are made. Third, the owner hires the contractor to build the project. The construction manager stays on as adviser through the completion of construction.

      Because this method adds a consultant and the associated fees, it is more appropriate for large, complex projects than relatively small, simple ones. This option is also appropriate for owners who want to hire an architect and contractor directly but do not have the time or in-house expertise to oversee the building process. The principal advantages are the direct contractual relationships with the owner, careful monitoring of costs and schedule, and continual oversight throughout a linear process easy for owners to manage.
    2. Construction Manager as Agent. In this option the owner releases authority to a construction manager, allowing the owner to step back from the project. This option requires careful selection of the construction manager because the power of the district to shape a project to meet curriculum needs may be diluted. There are four prime players in this option: the owner, the construction manager, the architect, and the contractor.

      This option typically involves four phases. First, the construction manager is hired by the owner to act as agent and to oversee all project activities through the completion of construction. Second, the architect, who contracts through the construction manager, is hired. Development of educational specifications, design of the project, and construction documentation now occur. Third, the project is bid or negotiated to select a general contractor. Cost commitments are made at this stage. Fourth, the contractor directs the building of the project.

      Note: This method may not be appropriate for school districts. Your legal adviser should be consulted.
    3. Construction Manager as General Contractor . In this delivery method the construction manager is hired before the design is completed. The manager serves as project coordinator and general contractor and assumes all the liability and responsibility of the general contractor. There are three prime players: owner, architect, and construction manager.

      This option typically involves three phases. First, the owner contracts with the architect for the design of the project. When the design is about 50 percent complete, the scope of work documents are prepared. Second, on the basis of those documents, the project is bid in order to select the construction manager. Third, the owner hires the construction manager to advise during preconstruction and to build the project. When the construction documents have been completed, the manager generally rebids some or all of the construction to other contractors. Note: This method should be undertaken only with the advice of legal counsel as to its applicability under the State Contract Act.

      This method is common for owners for whom cost, schedule, or construction is expected to be complicated, as when a project will be fast-tracked. The principal advantages are the initial focus on design issues, construction advice during the design process, careful oversight of costs and schedule, early cost commitments, and opportunities to shorten the overall project schedule.
    4. Other Options. Other variations of construction and project management include "CM at risk" and "multiple prime" contracting. Again, they should be undertaken only after seeking legal advice.
  3. Design/Build
    Design/build is a form of project delivery in which the owner contracts with a single entity, the design/builder, to provide both design and construction services under one contract. The design/builder may be a single firm, a consortium of experts, or a joint-venture undertaking. Typically, the team includes an architect and a construction contractor, who may be partners in the undertaking or one a subcontractor to the other. Although contractors commonly head the design/build team, architects who maintain necessary insurance and construction bonds can also serve in that capacity. The principal advantages of design/build are the single point of responsibility and the potential to collapse otherwise independent phases and, therefore, save valuable time. Note: Design/build is not legal in some states, and its use is limited under the State Contract Act and by Field Act requirements contained in the Education Code. Design/build should be undertaken only with legal counsel. Educational specifications are especially critical in a design/build project. They must be complete and part of the contract documents because they are the owner's only input into the design and construction process.
    1. Design/Build by Constructor. Design/build by constructor is characterized by the assignment of total responsibility for the project to the design/build entity. The constructor is responsible for both design and construction services under one contract so that there are only two prime players, the owner and the design/builder. This method is the most commonly employed form of design/build.
    2. Design/Build by Developer. This design/build delivery option incorporates the functions of design and construction. In addition, the design/build entity takes on some responsibilities of real estate development. Also known as turnkey construction or sale-lease back, this method is characterized by the legal transfer of title to real property. It is distinct from speculative development because an owner initiates the process and contracts for services with the design/build developer. There are two prime players - the owner who initiates the project and will purchase it upon completion and the design/builder. Note: This option may not be appropriate for school projects because of State Contract Act and Education Code restrictions and should be undertaken only with the advice of legal counsel.
    3. Bridging. Bridging is characterized as the merging of design-bid-build with design/build. Initially, the owner contracts with an architect to develop a project through the design development phase. The architect helps determine needs and the direction of the design work. After arriving at a satisfactory design scheme, the owner contracts with a design/build-constructor entity to complete the project. The design/builder completes design documentation and acts as the architect of record. There are three prime players: the owner, the owner's architect, and later, the design/builder. Note: This option may not be appropriate for school projects because of State Contract Act and Education Code restrictions and should be undertaken only with the advice of legal counsel.

      This method is common for public and private owners who wish to maintain the advantages of contracting with an architect while gaining advantages associated with design/build and who also intend to engage in competitive bidding. Its principal advantages include focused attention on design issues, competitive bidding, and single point or responsibility during design documentation and construction.

These descriptions briefly summarize eight basic options available to owners, architects, contractors, and construction managers in the undertaking of a building project. The Handbook on Project Delivery includes extensive information organized to permit ready comparison of options. The choice of project delivery methods has become a significant factor in the building industry, and the handbook offers guidelines for making such choices.

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Appendix 6 - Site Selection

Appropriate site selection is a fundamental starting point in efforts to enhance a school district's educational program. If the placement of neighborhood schools is a concern, then that element must be decided on well before the educational specifications are prepared. Whatever your district holds important in instruction for young people, selecting an appropriate site must be seen as an integral part of the planning process.

Selection Procedures

Planning for site selection includes a number of considerations, all of which are related to master planning and some of which are related to educational specifications. Steps to be considered include (1) an analysis of the demographic study to determine areas of projected student population growth and the numbers and ages of students expected; (2) a review of the size, location, grade levels, and attendance areas of existing schools and any proposed policy changes relating to those factors; (3) the district's transportation capabilities; (4) a determination of who will be involved in site selection; (5) the establishment of criteria by which the site is to be judged; (6) the establishment of a timeline to guide the process; and (7) financing.

A critical element of advance planning is to follow consistent and appropriate site selection procedures. Special consideration should be given to safety, aesthetics, environmental features, and other aspects of the site that will contribute to the learning environment and educational opportunities for students. Accordingly, environmental regulations, the property acquisition requirements (Title 5) of all state agencies, and all local requirements, including fire, safety, and the general plan, must be strictly adhered to. Site selection must be planned in cooperation with other public agencies, developers, and interested planning groups.

Because site acquisition can be a lengthy process, selection procedures should begin well in advance of expected need with the establishment of a broadly represented site selection committee. Sites should be purchased several years before actual need because (1) early purchase may save money in times of steadily increasing land values; (2) early purchase helps ensure a good selection (as areas develop, availability is reduced); (3) postponement may result in the necessity of exercising eminent domain or in accepting a site that is too small, poorly located, or difficult to develop; and (4) tardy acquisition may delay plans for design and construction, thereby exacerbating overcrowding in existing schools.

Selection Criteria

Site selection criteria should be thoughtfully developed and the process itself carefully understood. Sites should be located to serve the proposed attendance area with maximum convenience and safety of access. Schools should be located in an area free of excessive noise, obnoxious odors, and toxic conditions affecting air, soil, or water and away from such hazards as airports, electromagnetic fields, earthquake faults, and floods. Joint-use arrangements with libraries and parks should be considered. The School Site Selection and Approval Guide and the School Site Analysis and Development Guide should be used as references in establishing site selection criteria and in understanding the site approval process.

Site Acquisition

Once alternative sites have been reviewed and a first choice has been made, acquisition is the next step. Negotiation for site acquisition should be handled by one person (e.g., the facilities planner, the business manager, the superintendent, or an attorney - but not a board member). Two appraisals should be obtained. The governing board's inclination to pursue condemnation, if necessary, should be determined.

Educational Appropriateness

Existing and proposed site plans should show the layout of existing buildings and grounds, parking and roads, and playfield areas to ensure that the site will support the proposed educational program. The plans should also show future additions and the expansions necessary to accommodate each site's maximum proposed enrollment. Prepared by an architect and the district's facilities planner, the plan serves as a decision-making tool in determining future facility needs and managing implementation strategies.

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Appendix 7 - Safe Architecture for Schools

This appendix addresses some of the building and equipment safety issues that need to be considered in developing educational specifications. It also includes a facility design response to natural disasters and criminal activity included in your school disaster preparedness plan.

Any consideration of facilities will include factors related to site selection, such as ease of supervision and provision for separation of pedestrians, bicycles, automobiles, buses, and delivery vehicles. In addition, adjacent land use, existence of toxic materials, traffic volume, street access, and the neighborhood crime rate need to be evaluated as compatible with school use. Other considerations include whether adjacent homes (or other property) that back up to school property lines provide a buffer from neighborhood problems or instead offer concealed access to the site.

Site considerations include the provision of access routes for emergency vehicles acceptable to the local fire department and the implementation of the recommendations contained in School Area Pedestrian Safety.

Concerns for campus layout include easy supervision of buildings and grounds and ability to secure the campus when necessary. Questions for consideration: Are the main outdoor spaces and playgrounds (especially kindergarten) on the campus easily supervised from the school office? Does the campus layout facilitate after-hour supervision by police vehicle patrols? Have the recommendations contained in Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action been implemented?

The facility should provide protection from the elements. In cold-weather climates, is there adequate access for snow removal? Have snow cleats or special ventilation to attics been provided to prevent ice from sliding off roofs onto passersby? Do rainwater leaders present any projection hazard? Do they carry roof drainage directly to underground piping to eliminate water flowing across sidewalks? If the facility is to be used for year-round education, has there been planning for necessary shade areas? Are there emergency supplies for use if the campus is isolated because of inclement conditions (weather, floods, earthquake, and so forth)? Is there an evacuation plan?

Safety equipment, including fire hydrants, speed bumps, and contrasting paving surfaces to protect pedestrians, must be provided as needed to protect students and staff from injury.

Design and detailing should eliminate conditions that allow unauthorized access to rooftops, electrical equipment, and other dangerous places to inhibit children who like to climb and explore. Architectural features can be concealed, recessed, or located so that they cannot be climbed on or injure a playing child. Are walking surfaces slip-resistant and other surfaces smooth, with no sharp projections? Are exterior-wall finish materials smooth enough not to be an abrasion hazard to passersby and still repel graffiti and vandalism?

Have curbs and wheel blocks been used sparingly? Are changes in flooring or paving materials transitioned to minimize trip hazards? Are window projections and door swings located so that they cannot injure users or passersby?

Do bicycle racks promote the safe handling and storage of bikes? Are outdoor sports facilities (basketball courts, baseball fields, soccer fields, tennis courts, and so forth) configured in the desirable solar orientation for each sport? Have all playgrounds and play structures been designed/specified/arranged in compliance with the Handbook for Public Playground Safety and the current California Department of Health Services regulations?

Have all requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act been met? For additional information call the California Department of Rehabilitation at 916-322-7581.

Special care must be executed in designing adequate lighting and providing a healthful ventilation system. Layout should promote visual supervision and consider the comfort of neighbors in regard to noise, parking, lighting, and so forth.

Decide whether your security system is to protect life or property or both. Should a central security system be monitored on site or off site? Should it provide intrusion detection or motion detection (or both) at the doors and windows? Should there be telephones in every room? The best security is the ability of staff to observe campus areas in a casual manner and for neighbors to be positive toward the school so that when they notice unusual activity, they will call authorities as necessary.

Building and equipment safety issues are those items that, with thought in selection of materials, design of details, and the maintenance of the facility, can prevent injury in the use of the facility .

Below is a checklist for new and modernized construction prepared in collaboration with the Lionakis-Beaumont Design Group, Architects. The checklist does not supplant information and standards available from the California Department of Education or others regarding school safety or others regarding school safety. It also does not cover basic life-safety considerations that are required by building codes and covered in the review and approval process of the Division of the State Architect.

  1. Site Selection
    1. Have all of the site selection criteria issued by the California Department of Education been met? Has the site been approved by the Department? The use of adjacent lands should be evaluated as to compatibility with the functions of the school. Included in the evaluation should be the presence of railroads or other avenues of transportation, the existence of toxic materials, the location of power lines, the volume of traffic, street access, and the neighborhood crime rate.
    2. Has a corner site been considered to provide primary separation of bus and automobile access from two different sides of the site?
    3. Do adjacent homes back up to the playground area? Consider safety issues raised by the adjacent homes. Do they provide a buffer from neighborhood problems? Or do they impede visual supervision of the site during nonschool hours and provide multiple access points to the site?
    4. Are the geotechnical characteristics of the site compatible for structures and playfields?
  2. Site Circulation
    1. Have separate bus, automobile, and pedestrian routes been provided?
    2. Are the bus-loading areas and the parent drop-off area fully separated from one another?
    3. Do students have a vehicle-free path of travel on foot from all pedestrian, bicycle, and drop-off and loading areas directly onto the campus?
    4. Do bicyclists have a clear path from surrounding surface streets or bicycle lanes directly onto a parking refuge for bicycles on the site? Must the bicyclists cross the paths of automobiles, buses, or pedestrians?
    5. Has a complete access route for emergency vehicles been planned around or through the campus (or both) in full compliance with requirements for local emergency response personnel (e.g., local fire department personnel)?
    6. Have the recommendations contained in School Area Pedestrian Safety been applied?
  3. Campus Building and Open-Space Layout
    1. Has the campus been designed so that, with relatively short sections of fencing, the campus can be closed to access after hours?
    2. Has the number of exterior spaces between buildings been minimized to maximize supervision?
    3. Is the main outdoor gathering space on the campus easily supervised from the school office, the campus security office, and teacher areas?
    4. Does the campus layout facilitate after-hour supervision by police department patrols?
    5. Have the recommendations contained in Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action been implemented?
  4. Site Accessories
    1. Has a covered walkway system for the campus been considered as a means of providing safe, all-weather access to all facilities?
    2. Have the number, spacing, and pressure requirements of fire hydrants been approved by the local fire marshal?
    3. Have outdoor electrical distribution cabinets been adequately enclosed, locked, and protected?
    4. Have speed bumps and ramps in parking areas been considered as a means of slowing traffic to improve safety?
    5. Has the addition of contrasting paving materials in the parking lots been considered for delineating pedestrian areas?
    6. Is there a safe transition from the playground equipment to the surrounding hardcourt paving?
    7. Have curbs and wheel blocks been used as little as possible?
    8. Have bicycle racks been specified that promote the safe handling and storage of bikes?
    9. Does the plan for landscape planting support security and safety goals through the selection and location of plant materials?
    10. Have the outdoor sports facilities, such as basketball courts, softball and hardball fields, soccer fields, and tennis courts, been configured in the desirable solar orientation for each type of sport?
    11. Are play structures, furnishings, and the environment designed to be age-appropriate and developmentally appropriate for the student population?
  5. Rooftops
    1. Do conditions exist that allow unauthorized access to the rooftops (e.g., fences next to low overhangs)?
    2. Do skylights have security bars to prevent forced entry and falling through?
    3. In cold-weather climates, have snow cleats or special ventilation to attics been provided for sloped roofs to prevent ice from sloughing off onto passersby below?
    4. Do any parts of the roof system present an overhead obstruction problem to passersby below (e.g., rain gutters, headers, or scuppers)?
  6. Exterior Detail
    1. Do rainwater leaders (downspouts) carry roof drainage away directly in underground piping to eliminate roof water flowing across sidewalks and creating a slipping hazard? Do rainwater leaders present any projection hazard to passersby in sidewalk areas?
    2. Have exterior wall-mounted hose bibs been provided in recessed boxes as opposed to standard ones that present a projection hazard in areas of close contact by passersby?
    3. Has a safety review been conducted on the layout and type of equipment to be used in the playground?
    4. What cushioning material is used in the playground?
    5. Have all playgrounds and play structures been designed/specified/arranged in compliance with the Handbook for Public Playground Safety?
    6. Have all requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act been met?
    7. Are the finish materials on the exterior walls smooth enough not to present an abrasion hazard to passersby and yet still function reasonably with respect to graffiti and vandalism?
    8. Have possible overhead obstructions lower than seven feet six inches been eliminated from the design?
  7. Walking Surfaces
    1. Are changes in the flooring and paving materials adequately transitioned to avoid tripping hazards?
    2. Are all doorway thresholds in full compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act to provide accessibility and avoid tripping hazards?
    3. Where door walk-off mats are desired, have they been appropriately designed to fit into floor recesses to eliminate slipping hazards?
    4. Has a slip-resistant finish been specified for outdoor concrete walks and other walking surfaces?
    5. Has a resilient flooring system of free-lay rubber grid mats been considered for locker room and shower areas?
    6. Have toilet rooms been outfitted with slip-resistant flooring materials?
    7. Do rainwater leaders present projection hazards to passersby in sidewalk areas?
    8. In cold-weather climates has access to primary pedestrian walkways by snow plows been facilitated for ease of clearing snow? Are imbedded heater wire systems needed in any critical paving area?
  8. Doors and Windows
    1. Has the use of projecting-type windows (e.g., awning, casement, hopper) been avoided?
    2. Have appropriate locking mechanisms been included as part of the window hardware package?
    3. Have doors been located in recessed wall niches? Have vision windows in or alongside the door been provided to prevent injury to passersby from the swinging out of the doors?
    4. Has the use of floor-mounted doorstops been avoided to reduce tripping hazards?
    5. Has the use of rounded door stiles been considered to reduce the possibility of finger injury in door jambs when the door is closing?
    6. Have all code provisions for the use of impact-resistant safety glass been met in all required locations in doors and/or windows (see California Building Code Section 5406)?
  9. Interior Details
    1. Are drinking fountains provided in recessed niches or with safety rails for the protection of those using the fountains and passersby as required by the Americans with Disabilities Act?
    2. Have drinking fountains in gymnasium spaces been placed away from the action of the play courts?
    3. Have flush-mounted floor receptacles been specified where floor receptacles are required?
    4. Have interior miscellaneous details been implemented that lessen projection hazards (e.g., rounded versus pointed coat hooks and semirecessed versus fully projecting fire extinguisher cabinets)?
    5. Has casework been designed to be free of sharp corners?
  10. Lighting
    1. Have exterior parking lots and other outdoor spaces, especially between buildings, been illuminated evenly throughout? (Use more than minimum requirements in troublesome areas.)
    2. Have interior spaces of buildings been illuminated in accordance with the latest guidelines for school use issued by the Illuminating Engineering Society?
    3. Are the types of fixtures used inside and outside designed to be vandal-resistant?
  11. Security System
    1. Has space on the campus been provided for campus security?
    2. Is there a clear path of vision from the campus security office or the school office (or both) into the heart of the campus, where students ordinarily gather? Are circulation paths clearly designated so that students or outsiders in other spaces may be questioned as to their business in those spaces?
    3. Has a central security system been installed that is monitored on or off site? Is door and window protection provided? Is motion detection provided? Are there telephones in every room? Decide whether your security system is intended to protect life or property or both and design it accordingly.
  12. Toilet Rooms
    1. Have vandal-resistant components and hardware been used on all toilet room accessories and partitions?
    2. Are mirrors made of impact-resistant glazing or polished stainless steel?
    3. Is the flooring slip-resistant?
    4. Are the campus toilet rooms arranged so that they are reasonably easy to supervise by a staff person when necessary? Have you considered alternate layouts to group toilets, such as single-user private toilet spaces with toilet and wash basin (and urinal at boys' toilets) opening to a common open corridor or toilets in pairs attached to each classroom?
  13. Food Service
    1. Do the facility food service areas comply with local health department regulations for the preparation, storage, and serving of food?
    2. Does the facility comply with all regulations included in the California Health and Safety Code, specifically Section 27500 et seq., the California Uniform Retail Facilities Law?

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Appendix 8 - School Disaster Preparedness Plan

Natural disasters and criminal activity are the safety issues that concern students, parents, and staff more than any others. Schools must address those issues and include them in a school disaster preparedness plan. Implementation of the school disaster preparedness plan must be included in the educational specifications. More importantly, because the safety issues are a concern of the whole community, they cannot be fully addressed except in partnership with local law enforcement and community organizations. Schools can be effective in providing positive and safe after-hour and off-campus events for youths; however, community sponsors and support are necessary.

Title 5 of the California Code of Regulations (referencing Education Code Section 33031) has required schools to have civil defense and disaster preparedness plans since the 1950s. Currently, no state agency has lead responsibility for ensuring preparedness for school emergencies. No consensus exists as to a standard with which to evaluate school site or district emergency plans, nor is there any approval authority. The responsibility for such plans rests with local entities, such as school districts, county offices of education, and boards of private schools. The Education Code states that those entities may work with the State Office of Emergency Services but does not mandate any authority or responsibility at the level of the California Department of Education.

The following checklist may help in focusing on the problems to be faced and solved:

  1. List Each Issue to Be Addressed
    Maintain accurate records about the most pressing crime and safety issues confronting your school. Identify school personnel requirements for safety issues. Develop agreements with local agencies for help in specific ways for each issue pertinent to your area.
  2. Analyze Each Issue
    In analyzing each issue, remember that children are required to attend school. The school must protect them and at the same time provide facilities that are inviting and conducive to learning.

    Common wisdom holds that schools should be open and unconfining. Common sense indicates that they must also be safe, secure, and defensible. You should reconcile those apparently conflicting requirements in your planning process as each issue is studied.
  3. Develop a Planned Response to Each Issue
    1. Criminal Activity. Do schools need to be made into fortresses? Would fortress-like structures protect us from some problems and at the same time make us more vulnerable to others? Have the recommendations contained in Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action been considered?
      1. Riots or Civil Disobedience. Schools fared reasonably well in the recent Los Angeles riots. But will they fare equally well in the next riot? The commercial establishments that survived the riots were fortresses. They had impenetrable walls without windows, had steeply sloped roofs, or were multistoried. Made of concrete and corrugated metal, they were designed not to have picture windows or visible courtyards. None of those design features would seem to be conducive to learning. The defense of school facilities against insurrection may lie in cooperation with local law enforcement agencies and in training programs emphasizing cooperation with those agencies.
      2. Invasions and Child Abductions. An open-plan school might be protected better against armed intruders and child abductors than a closed-plan school if the whole site could be surveyed from one or two key points. Applying defensive design concepts might be preferred to constructing forbidding facades, moats, or guard towers.

        The campus layout should allow for easy supervision of buildings and grounds and the securing of the campus when necessary. A central easily observed entry point for all students, staff, and visitors would allow monitoring of comings and goings in a casual way and simplify closure of the campus if necessary.
      3. Graffiti and Vandalism. Are exterior-wall finish materials smooth enough not to present an abrasion hazard to passersby and yet still repel graffiti and vandalism?

        Are public circulation paths clearly designated so that students or outsiders in other spaces may be questioned as to their business in that space?

        Are the fixtures used inside and outside designed to be vandal-resistant?

        Does the district have 24-hour removal or repair policies for graffiti or vandalism?
      4. Theft. Design and detailing should eliminate conditions that allow unauthorized access to rooftops and other concealed places.

        Security systems should be provided as necessary to protect life and property. The best security is the ability for staff to observe campus areas in a casual manner and for neighbors to have positive feelings toward the school so that they notice unusual activity and call authorities when necessary. Layout should promote visual supervision and consider the comfort of neighbors. Other considerations might include the following:
        • Has the campus been laid out so that it can be closed, partly or completely, to after-hours access?
        • Are the main outdoor spaces and playgrounds (especially the kindergarten area) on the campus easily supervised from the school office?
        • Does the campus layout facilitate after-hour supervision by police department patrols?
        • Do skylights have security bars to prevent forced entry? Are appropriate locking devices provided throughout on doors, windows, and grilles?
    2. Natural Disasters. A fortress might offer some protection against riots, invasions, and child snatchings. But how would a large population of children escape a fortress in an earthquake, fire, or flood? The rescue of children and teachers in case of a natural disaster would be easier in an open-plan school than in a closed-plan school.

      The Federal Emergency Management Agency may be able to help you in developing a planned response to natural disasters. Their California addresses are 339 North Bernardo, Mountain View, CA 94043, telephone 415-966-9000; and 1414 Soquel Avenue, Santa Cruz, CA 95062, telephone 408-426-1209.
      1. Earthquakes. Refer to the Report of the Earthquake Preparedness Task Force in Compliance with Assembly Bill 3730, Chapter 1352, Statutes of 1988, authored by Assembly Member Roybal-Allard and published by the California Department of Education (1989). This document and other information are available from the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education; telephone 916-322-2470. The document includes suggestions on preparation drills and supplies and on evacuation and shelter procedures.
      2. Fire. Consult your local fire marshal for information on the design of buildings, the storage of materials, evacuation procedures, and drills. Fire prevention, which is critical, requires ongoing programs.
      3. Flood. The response to floods is similar to the preparation for and response to earthquakes. Depending on the flood danger in your area, plans should be developed for evacuation, short-term supply storage and shelter, and cooperation with local, state, and federal agencies. For information on areas subject to dam inundation, telephone the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, at 916-322-2470.
      4. Inclement Weather. Severe storms, snow conditions, tornados, and other unusual weather conditions require planning similar to that required for earthquakes. Evacuation, short-term supply storage, shelter, and cooperation with other agencies are to be included in your preparedness plan.
  4. Develop School and Community Response and Training Plans
    Develop school and community plans for dealing with safety and emergencies. Include provisions for campus security, such as access control, visibility, landscaping, fencing and gates, exterior lighting, monitoring, communications systems, and alarms. Develop interagency agreements so that everyone knows what is expected when an emergency occurs. Develop training plans for staff and students in all aspects of emergency response: current safety trends and information, crisis intervention and management, and, especially, student response to the crisis and to authorities dealing with the crisis. Identify school security personnel and equipment needs and phase them into your budget.

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Appendix 9 - Facility Activation, Orientation, and Postoccupancy Evaluation

Facility activation, user orientation, and postoccupancy evaluation are important to educational specifications in that evaluation completes the planning cycle and provides corrective feedback for the next project.

Facility Activation

Activation is the process of placing the facility in operation. The educational specifications are especially important for reference as the project progresses from the completion of construction to the functioning of the facility.

During the activation process individual equipment and components as well as systems are checked to ensure that they function together properly. Records of this process attest to the acceptability of the facility in relation to the educational specifications and provide a database for future evaluation.

Facility activation should also deliver a set of maintenance and operations manuals for all systems, subsystems, and building materials. Maintenance and operations manuals and on-site training for employees should be included in the construction documents and provided by the contractor, reviewed by the architect, and supplied to the project as specified in the construction contract. The manuals should be assembled in a permanent library for use throughout the life of the project, together with drawings and construction specifications edited to reflect as-built conditions. Copies should be available in the school office permanent records as well as in the maintenance offices of the district and at the site.

Orientation and Training Programs

Orientation of staff, students, and the public is necessary if the facility is to be used properly by the community. The potential of many design features may never be realized if users are not made aware of them.

A new environment alone will not change behaviors that have developed through experience with existing facilities. The users should, therefore, be represented in the initial planning stages, and changes in the curriculum should be initiated in existing facilities long before occupancy of the new school. Each user group's involvement with a facility differs. Consequently, a variety of orientation programs directed specifically at details for each group will be needed.

The orientation sessions might take the form of building tours conducted by the design team, including the architect, other consultants, and members of the educational specifications committee. Project background, design concepts, and facility relationship to the educational program should be explained. If the proposed educational program is new or facility components very sophisticated, more intense in-service training may be required for teachers or operational staff.

Public information programs may be less detailed than user orientations and may be designed to promote acceptance of the educational program and its relationship to the facility. Means of informing the public about the school include media features, brochures, and open house tours that discuss and illustrate the new educational facility and its relationship to the curriculum.

The educational specifications serve as part of the user's facility manual. They provide a summary of the project's history and design concepts as well as a basis for evaluation of facility effectiveness.

A separate maintenance and operations manual is the second part of the user's facility manual (see the previous section titled "Facility Activation"). This document provides technical data on the facility systems and components, cleaning instructions, guarantees, and other vital information. The construction documents normally include requirements for operation and maintenance manuals on most building materials and systems.

The contractor can also be required by the construction documents, as part of the cost of the project, to include personnel training in operation and maintenance items related to the products or systems supplied to the project.

Both volumes of the user's facility manual should provide guidance as to how the building was designed to be used, telling users what was intended.

Postoccupancy Evaluation

Once the facility has been completed, the occupants and community oriented, and the program implemented, it is time to look at the results of the planning, design, and construction efforts. Postoccupancy evaluation includes both a technical evaluation of all facility subsystems and a functional evaluation of the extent to which the facility meets educational program objectives. Questions to be asked: Does the environment contribute or not contribute to better learning by students, better teaching, and professionalism by teachers and administrators? Does the building teach about sustainable architecture and ecology? Well-documented postoccupancy evaluations of existing facilities provide information vital to development of subsequent projects.

Postoccupancy evaluation is an essential part of the total planning process. It should be a continuing activity, at least during the first year the project is in operation, and then repeated at intervals through the next three to five years. It can be used to identify changes in the planning process that might be required and identify particular features of the building that should or should not be repeated in future projects.

It is the last stage of the planning process, and, if carefully documented, is the first step in writing educational specifications. At this point the planning process has come full circle.

For additional information on facility activation, user orientation, and postoccupancy evaluation, please refer to The Guide for Planning Educational Facilities and The Guide for School Facility Appraisal.

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Appendix 10 - Sample Form ES-3 Facilities Inspection Summary

Name:

Title:

Firm:

Date:

Project:

Instructions

Inspect all designated facilities to provide an assessment of the condition of the school or schools. All major building systems (structural, electrical, mechanical, heating/cooling, roofing, fire alarm, and intercom) as well as site conditions are to be examined.

Inspect for compliance with the Americans with Disabilities Act, Title 24, accessibility standards, and health and life safety codes.

Spaces should be inspected for conformance with current standards(lighting, acoustics, square footage, heating/cooling, electrical outlets, and adaptability for future technology systems). Rate each item against current standards on a scale of 1 (low) to 10 (high).

Facilities Inspection Summary
Site Considerations (include rating)
  1. School is close to students' residences.
  2. School is close to community facilities.
  3. Site is away from freeways, railways, flight patterns.
  4. Site is away from excessive noise, obnoxious odors, toxic conditions, electromagnetic fields, earthquake faults, flood zones.
  5. Site has good access and dispersal roads.
  6. Site size is adequate for present and future buildings, playfields, parking, and so forth.
  7. Topography provides for proper drainage.

Average rating - site considerations:

Existing Conditions/Maintainability (include rating)
  1. Roofing and flashing are in good condition and are appropriate to the site/building.
  2. Sidewalks are relatively free of cracks and uneven surfaces and are slip-resistant.
  3. Interiors are free of chipped paint, cracked floors, and uneven surfaces.
  4. Exterior walls are adequately insulated, free of graffiti, and easy to maintain.
  5. Exterior soffits/overhangs/fascias are free of leakage, cracks, and damage.

Average rating - existing conditions/maintainability:

Mechanical (include rating)
  1. Existing equipment is relatively new and in good repair. Servicing is not a consideration.
  2. Existing equipment is easily service. Parts and repair are readily available.
  3. Existing heating and cooling system provides a comfortable learning environment.
  4. Existing system is efficient in use of power.

Average rating - mechanical:

Learning Environment: Aesthetics (include rating)
  1. Design characteristics are appropriate to the community.
  2. Interiors are conducive to effective teaching/learning.
  3. Exteriors provide a continuity of building forms and a scale appropriate to children.
  4. Existing landscaping is pleasing.
  5. Sources of natural light are used.
  6. Advantage is taken of beautiful views and natural site features.

Average rating - learning environment: aesthetics:

Learning Environment: Space (include rating)
  1. Size and shape are adequate for the functions housed.
  2. Maximum consideration is given to the use of nonbearing, easily relocatable interior walls.
  3. Existing buildings allow for potential increased enrollment, additions, and changes in function.
  4. Exterior of buildings form spaces that can be utilized for outdoor activities.
  5. Classrooms contain the following as a minimum:
    1. Adequate electrical, Internet, and telephone outlets to accommodate equipment.
    2. Chalkboards and tackable walls.
    3. Adequate storage and shelving.
    4. Sink and drinking fountain.

Average rating - learning environment - space:

Learning Environment: Sound (include rating)
  1. Loud activities are separated from quiet ones.
  2. External noise is mitigated.
  3. Acoustics within rooms has been planned in terms of room shape, geometry, and selection of wall and ceiling materials.
  4. Existing construction reduces unwanted sound from light ballasts, mechanical equipment, and plumbing.
  5. Interior walls utilize construction that prevents sound transmission between adjacent rooms.

Average rating - learning environment - sound:

Learning Environment: Technology (include rating)
  1. Existing facility utilizes current educational technologies:
    1. Computers.
    2. Interactive video.
    3. Satellite reception.
    4. Fiber optics.
    5. Cable television.
  2. Existing facility can be easily retrofitted for the above.
  3. Existing facility can be easily retrofitted for future telephone and data systems.
  4. Existing systems have networking capabilities between campuses.

Average rating - learning environment - technology:

Life Safety/Code Compliance: Structural (include rating)
  1. Integrity of existing foundations.
  2. Integrity of existing structural columns and bearing walls.
  3. Integrity of existing structural beams and horizontal framing.
  4. Existing structural system provides easy expansion.

Average rating - life safety/code compliance - structural:

Life Safety/Code Compliance: Electrical/Fire Alarm/Special Systems (include rating)
  1. Interior spaces are adequately lighted.
  2. Existing electrical system has no major code violations.
  3. Exterior lighting is adequate for night time functions.
  4. Electric service is adequate for future expansion and retrofitting.
  5. Existing fire alarm system meets all current life safety codes.

Average rating - life safety/code compliance: electrical/fire alarm/special systems:

Accessibility: ADA and Title 24 (include rating)
  1. There is an accessible route from outside the campus to the campus entry.
  2. There is an accessible route from the campus entry to all buildings.
  3. Existing signage meets code requirements.
  4. Existing stairs/ramps meet code requirements.
  5. Existing toilet rooms meet code or can be easily retrofitted.

Average rating - accessibility - ADA and Title 24:

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Appendix 11 - Constructibility Reviews

The constructibility review is a critique of project contract documents for accuracy and coordination. Usually performed by an architect or special consultant, the constructibility review is done in addition to the architect's normal contract document review and coordination.

The constructibility review is designed to coordinate the contract documents to minimize project change orders, improve building quality, ensure compliance with educational specifications, meet budgets, and comply with schedules.

  1. Constructibility Reviews to Prevent Change Orders
    The most vexing problem in the construction of school facilities is the accumulation of unanticipated costs due to change orders after the project is under construction. Change orders are to be expected on every project because building systems are increasingly complex. In addition, market conditions may lead to a highly competitive environment that forces contractors to bid as low as they can and then use attorneys to enhance their profit margin through unbid change orders. Such problems may be minimized if the contract documents are accurate and well coordinated. A constructibility review, as a procedure in addition to the architect's coordination of his or her work and the work of consultants, may minimize the need for change orders but does add costs to project administration.

    You should define a problem you are trying to solve before you select a solution. What are the reasons in your district for change orders? Discuss the question with local contractors, architects, and your inspector and review past projects if possible. Use input from the public and various professional organizations, such as local building officials and local chapters of professional organizations. Be aware that the point of view of each of these groups is different and therefore may not be totally accurate. This topic is included under educational specifications because some mediation measures can be included in the criteria for building systems, selection of the architect, determination of the need for additional consultants, and decisions on project delivery systems. In any case the topic is one that needs consideration early in the planning process. Some of the reasons for change orders on a project, their predictability, and mediation procedures that may prevent change orders are presented as follows:
    1. Unforeseen conditions, such as utilities, tanks, and other structures buried underground that no one knew were there, are impossible to deal with except through change orders. Careful development of contract documents that shift the responsibility for such items to the contractor is possible but risky because the contractor will have to add a mitigating factor to cover liability.

      Other unforeseen conditions might include geological faults, water, and other hidden natural phenomena as well as hazards caused by human intervention, such as work done subsequent to preparation of site studies or the existence of toxic materials left over from earlier use of the site. Those factors can be minimized by district policies that require documentation of all work done at each site and the commissioning of geotechnical studies early in project planning, with accuracy being verified just prior to the start of the development of construction documents. Responsibility for those items can be shifted to the contractor in the construction documents by specific directions, by allowance, or by a requirement for contract surveys.
    2. Errors in interpreting the requirements of the code may also require change orders. In school projects electrical, mechanical, plumbing, and fire/life safety code requirements are checked at the state level for minimum safety standards only. Those systems are not checked for basic code compliance except by the designer. The Division of the State Architect checks structural and accessibility code requirements more thoroughly but is limited by staff availability. The district might usefully contract with the local building department or with a private consultant to provide a cross-check on code compliance. That procedure will not prevent all change order possibilities but will tend to minimize the chance that field inspectors will disagree with the interpretations of those hired by the district to check compliance.
    3. Confirmation of the completeness of documents is an area where a constructibility review by an independent consultant may be of great value. The procedure can be viewed as similar to an editor's proofreading a document before it is published.
    4. The sequencing of trades on a single project can require change orders if one group of workers installs equipment that blocks the installation of other materials or systems. Paragraphs can be included in the contract documents that clearly makes the coordination function the responsibility of the general contractor. If change orders resulting from the sequencing of trades are a common occurrence in your locale, the district may be wise to initiate prequalification of contractors' procedures to ensure that the bidders have the experience and staff needed to coordinate a school project. A constructibility review should determine whether the contractor's responsibilities are spelled out completely in the construction documents.
    5. Coordination of multiphase or multiprime projects expands on the problems encountered in the sequencing of trades on a single project. Change orders made necessary by the difficulty of coordination endemic to multiphase or multiprime projects can wipe out the savings anticipated by the chosen project delivery method. (See Appendix 6 for additional information.) A constructibility review directed to the coordination of phases or prime contractors may mitigate the problem. The development of contracts with architects, construction managers, constructibility review consultants, and contractors must be developed as a set and reviewed against one another to prevent overlapping of duties or dilution of responsibilities.
    6. Interdisciplinary coordination errors that may induce change orders are the simplest to mediate through the constructibility review process. A fresh view of the documents by an independent consultant can show where interferences between each discipline can result in problems. Special care should be taken at points of interface and for careful correlation of information within a single discipline, such as electrical and/or mechanical engineering. A constructibility review might include all or some of the following checkpoints:
      • Two or more solid objects cannot occupy the same physical space.
      • A feature shown on one drawing should be shown in the same place, with the same features, and with the same terminology on all other related documents.
      • Drawings should be explicit. Do not make the contractor guess or defy the laws of physics.
      • There is no such thing as a small change in construction documents. Changes require a detective mentality. What else is changed? Where else does the change affect construction? A well-coordinated set of construction documents has all plans of the same type drawn at the same scale, keeps the same orientation for all plans (the north arrow is always the same direction on the paper), and uses consistent terminology for the plans and specifications. Cross-references are very specific in avoiding the use of such phrases as See architectural or See structural. The word new is to be avoided, and the use of existing should be fully documented and verified on site.

        Correct information is shown the least number of times possible to communicate the intent of the designers. But where duplicate information is offered, it is consistent and properly cross-referenced. Where used, match lines must show the same information on both sides of the match. Wall sections (and, possibly, details) on the same sheet should be shown at relative elevations to each other.

        The use of a standard checklist for checking drawings in a constructibility review may simplify procedures. A registered list titled "Remedy Check" may be obtained by you or your architect from PC Associates, 145 W. Main Street, Suite 200, Tustin, CA 92780; telephone 714-730-0933; FAX 714-730-1894. And William T. Nigro, AIA, has a system developed by the Redicheck Firm, 109 Greensway, Suite 100, Peachtree City, GA 30269, that may be obtained by calling 404-631-4430. Use documents such as these during the preparation of plans and specifications as well as during a final quality-assurance (constructibility) review at the end of production. By that approach the project should avoid most change orders caused by unforeseen conditions, controversy over code interpretations, incomplete documents, inappropriate sequencing of trades, lack of coordination, or interdisciplinary errors.
  2. Constructibility Reviews to Improve Building Quality
    In addition to minimizing change orders, a constructibility review may improve building quality at no increase in cost to the project. Review by an independent consultant may note details in the design that are not physically feasible or otherwise do not achieve the purpose intended. A critical review may show where materials specified are no longer available or are not the best available for the intended use.
  3. Constructibility Reviews to Ensure Compliance with Educational Specifications
    The educational specifications for the project should also be compared with the final construction documents at the time of the constructibility review. This is the last chance to correct changes from the educational specifications that affect curriculum without a change order being required.

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Selected References

School Planning/Design/Architecture

Castaldi, Basil. Educational Facilities: Planning, Modernization, and Management. Boston: Allyn and Bacon, 1987.

Copa, George H., and Virginia H. Pease. New Designs for the Comprehensive High School. Berkeley: National Center for Research in Vocational Education, 1992.

Earthman, Glenn. Planning Educational Facilities for the Next Century. Reston, VA: Association of School Business Officials, International, 1992.

The Effect of Architecture on Education. Washington, D.C.: American Institute of Architects, Committee on Architecture for Education, 1990.

Look of the Future: Report of the Governor's Committee on High School Science Laboratories for the 21st Century. Baltimore: Maryland Department of Education, 1992.

Rivkin, Mary S. The Great Outdoors: Restoring Children's Right to Play Outside. Washington, D.C.: National Association for the Education of Young Children, 1995.

Sanoff, Henry. School Design. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1992.

Taylor, Anne P., and George Vlastos. A Handbook: Space Planning for the Head Start Learning Environment. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico, 1993.

Wise, J.A. Control Is Beautiful: Measuring Facility Performance as If People and Buildings Really Mattered. Technical Report Number 3-9-1988, CIFR. Allendale, Mich.: Grand Valley State University, 1988.

Community Partnerships

California Strategic Plan for Parental Involvement in Education: Recommendations for Transforming Schools Through Family-Community-School Partnerships. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1992.

Christopher, G., and K. Lee. "Transforming the Learning Environment." A presentation to the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, 1995.

Drucker, P. Post-Capitalist Society. New York: Harper Business, 1993.

Every Child A Reader: The Report of the California Reading Task Force. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1996.

"How Schools are Re-designing Their Space," Educational Leadership (September, 1993).

Improving Mathematics Achievement for All California Students: The Report of the California Mathematics Task Force. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1995.

Joint Use Handbook. San Diego: San Diego City Unified School District, 1995.

Parent Involvement Programs in California Public Schools: Families, Schools, and Communities Working Together. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1991.

Planning Process for School Site Renovation to Ensure Equity and Community Input. Palo Alto, California: Palo Alto Unified School District, 1995.

Rising to the Challenge: A New Agenda for California Schools and Communities. Denver: Education Commission of the States, 1995.

San Diego City Schools Educational Specifications for Future Middle Schools. San Diego: M. DeJong and Associates, Inc., 1993.

Schools for the 21st Century: Final Report. Palo Alto, California: Palo Alto Unified School District, 1994.

Science Safety Handbook for California High Schools. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1987.

Access

Americans with Disabilities Act: A Comprehensive Overview. Sacramento: California Department of Rehabilitation, 1994.

Americans with Disabilities Act: Title II Self-Evaluation Guide. Sacramento: California Department of Rehabilitation, 1994.

California Accessibility Reference Manual. Sacramento: California Department of General Services, Division of the State Architect, Access Compliance, Office of Regulation Services, 1994.

Goltsman, Susan M., Timothy A. Gilbert and Steven D. Wohlford. Americans with Disabilities Act: Access Guide -Survey Checklist. Sacramento: California Department of Rehabilitation, 1994.

Educational Technology

Becker, Henry J. "Teaching with and About Computers in Secondary Schools," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 36 (May, 1993), 69-73.

Braun, L. "Help for All the Students," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 36 (May, 1993) 66-69.

Brooks, Jaqueline G. and Martin G. Brooks. In Search of Understanding: The Case for the Constructivist Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 1993.

Computer Facilities Planning: A Guide for Managers, Users, Architects, and Contractors (Second edition). Los Alamitos: Apple Computer, 1990.

Connect, Compute, and Compete: The Report of the Education Technology Task Force. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1996.

Grunewald, Peter. "Telecommunications in the Classroom," The Electronic School (October, 1991), 4-6.

Hawkins, Jan. "Technology and the Organization of Schooling," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 36 (May, 1993), 30-35.

Honey, Margaret and Andres Henriquez. Telecommunications and K-12 Educators: Findings from a National Survey. New York: Bank Street College of Education, Center for Technology in Education, 1993.

Hunter, Beverly. "Coordinating Technology for Systemic Reform," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 36, No. 5 (May, 1993).

Maak, Laurie E, Robert D. Carlitz and Kathleen M. Rutowski. "Benefits of School Networking." Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1995. Online: http://goldmine.cde.ca.gov/WWW/K-12/benefit_paper.html.

Means, Barbara and others. Using Technology to Support Education Reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1993.

Ray, Doris. "Administrators Have a Crucial Role to Play in Transforming Education," Electronic Learning (January/February, 1989), 6-8.

Rutowski, Kathleen M. Building Consensus/Building Models: A Networking Strategy for Change. Report of the CoSN-FARNET Project on K-12 Networking, Washington, D.C.: Federation of American Research Networks, Inc., and the Consortium for School Networking, 1994.

Sound Control in Design. Chicago: United States Gypsum, 1959.

Technical Guidelines for Schools. Palo Alto, California: Smart Valley, Inc., 1995.

Technology's Role in Education Reform. Prepared by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, SRI. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995.

Using Technology to Support Education Reform. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

School Safety

On Alert! Gang Prevention. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1994.

Safe Schools: A Planning Guide for Action. Sacramento: California Department of Education, 1995.

Other Publications

The following publications may be ordered from the California Department of Education, Publications Division, Sales Office, P.O. Box 271, Sacramento, CA 95812-0271; telephone 916-445-1260; FAX 916-323-0823; toll-free, 1-800-995-4099. (A list of publications available from the Department can also be obtained by writing to or calling the Sales Office.)

Bilingual Education Handbook: Designing Instruction for LEP Students, 1990.

California Assessment Program: A Sampler of Mathematics Assessment, 1991.

Economic Education Mandate: Handbook for Survival, 1991.

English-Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools, 1987.

English-Language Arts Model Curriculum Standards: Grades Nine Through Twelve, 1991.

Foreign Language Framework for California Public Schools, 1989.

History-Social Science Framework for California Public Schools, 1988.

Mathematics Framework for California Public Schools, 1992.

Model Curriculum Standards, Grades Nine Through Twelve, 1985.

Physical Education Model Curriculum Standards, Grades Nine Through Twelve, 1991.

Science Framework for California Public Schools, 1990.

Strategic Plan for Information Technology, 1991.

Toward a State of Esteem: The Final Report of the California Task Force to Promote Self-esteem and Personal and Social Responsibility, 1990.

Visual and Performing Arts Framework for California Public Schools, 1996.

Information about the following publications may be requested from the School Facilities Planning Division, California Department of Education, at 916-322-2470:

Facilities Performance Profile, 1988.

Guide for the Development of a Long-Range Facilities Plan, 1986.

Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators, 1995.

School Site Analysis and Development Guide, 1987.

School Site Selection and Approval Guide, 1989.

Self-Assessment Guide for School District Fiscal Policy Teams: Facilities Planning and Construction, 1991.

Virtual Schoolhouse: A Report to the Legislature on Distribution Infrastructure for Advanced Technologies in the Construction of New Schools, K-12, 1993.

Information about the following publications may be requested from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, 8687 E. Via de Ventura, Suite 311, Scottsdale, AZ 85258-3347; telephone 602-948-2337.

Design Portfolio. Published annually.

Designing Places for Learning. Published jointly by Council of Educational Facility Planners, International, and the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, Alexandria, Virginia, 1995.

The Educational Facility Planner. A monthly journal; free with membership.

The Guide for Planning Educational Facilities, 1996.

The Guide for School Facility Appraisal. Prepared by Harold L. Hawkins, Texas A & M University, and H. Edward Lilley, West Virginia University, 1986.

Preparing Your Building for Technology, 1996.

Information about the following publications may be requested from the American Institute of Architects:

Compensation at U.S. Architectural Firms (1997), American Institute of Architects; telephone 1-800-365-2724.

Handbook on Project Delivery (1996), American Institute of Architects, California Council, 1301 J Street, Suite 200, Sacramento, CA 95814; telephone 916-448-9082.

Selecting Architects for Public Projects (1970), American Institute of Architects; telephone 1-800-365-2724.

The following publication is available from the California School Boards Association:

School Boards, Public Relations, and the Media (1988), California School Boards Association, 3100 Beacon Blvd., West Sacramento, CA 95691; telephone 916-371-4691.

Note: Some of the references cited in this section may no longer be in print or otherwise available. The publication data were supplied by the School Facilities Planning Division. Questions about the availability of the references or the accuracy of the citations should be directed to the School Facilities Planning Division; telephone 916-322-2470.

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Questions:   Fred Yeager | fyeager@cde.ca.gov | 916-327-7148
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