Educating for Global CompetencyFindings and Recommendations from the 2016 California Global Education Summit.
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California Department of Education Sacramento, 2016
Educating for Global Competency: Findings and Recommendations from the 2016 California Global Education Summit was developed by the Professional Learning Support Division, California Department of Education. This publication was edited by Faye Ong, working in cooperation with Letty Kraus, Education Programs Consultant, and Aileen Allison-Zarea, Education Administrator. It was designed and prepared for printing by the staff of CDE Press, with the cover designed by Aristotle Ramirez. It was published by the Department of Education, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814. It was distributed under the provisions of the Library Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096.
© 2016 by the California Department of Education All rights reserved
Reproduction of this document for resale, in whole or in part, is not authorized.
The guidance in Educating for Global Competency: Findings and Recommendations from the 2016 California Global Education Summit is not binding on local educational agencies or other entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court decisions that are referenced herein, the document is exemplary, and compliance with it is not mandatory. (See Education Code Section 33308.5.)
Funding for all activities in this report was provided from a generous grant from the Longview Foundation for World Affairs and International Understanding. The California Department of Education (CDE) extends appreciation to Heather Singmaster of the Asia Society's Partnership for Global Learning (Asia Society) and Jennifer Manise of the Longview Foundation for their ongoing support and guidance; members of the California Global Education Summit's Internal and External Advisory teams, and their affiliated organizations, for their assistance in coordinating and facilitating the California Global Education Summit, the Santa Clara County Office of Education (SCCOE) and the Yolo County Office of Education (YCOE) for generously providing in-kind support to host the two-day Summit, guest speakers and panelists for sharing their expertise, Summit participants for sharing their broad knowledge and experience to help inform this report, and student ambassadors for sharing their personal experiences and providing the voices of youths to the effort.
Project Coordination and Oversight (CDE, Professional Learning Support Division): Stacey Greer, former Education Programs Consultant; Letty Kraus, Education Programs Consultant; Aileen Allison-Zarea, Education Administrator; and Carrie Roberts, former Director.
External Advisory Team Members: Nicole Anderson, Sarah Anderberg, Yvonne Chan, K. Y. Cheng, Lawrence Corio, Ronda DaRosa, Justine Fischer, Stacey Greer, Christine Lanphere, Jan Gustafson-Corea, Thomas Herman, Michael Matsuda, Nancy McTygue, Rosa Molina, Nina Moore, Yolanda Munoz, Laurie Olsen, Angelica Ramsey, Francisca Sanchez, Emily Schell, Duarte Silva, Shelly Spiegel-Coleman, Pam Spycher, Yee Wan, Leo Van Cleve, and Tanya Zaccone.
CDE Advisory Team and Working Group: Veronica Aguila, Peter Callas, Elena Fajardo, Shannon Gordon, Cynthia Gunderson, Alyssa Hanou, Jennifer Howerter, Erin Koepke, Janet Mann, David Militzer, Larina Moreno, Gary Page, Vicki Quinlan, Lidia Renteria, Mary Rice, and Constantino Silva.
Guest Speakers and Panel Members: Tom Torlakson, California State Superintendent of Public Instruction; Dr. Thomas Adams, Deputy Superintendent, Instruction, Learning, and Standards Support Branch, CDE; Jennifer Manise, Executive Director, Longview Foundation; Heather Singmaster, Assistant Director of Education, Asia Society; Russ Weikle, Director, Career and College Transition Division, CDE; Jon R. Gundry, Santa Clara County Superintendent of Schools; Dr. Jesse Ortiz, Yolo County Superintendent of Schools; Ronda DaRosa, Deputy Superintendent, YCOE; Mohamed Abdel-Kader, Deputy Assistant Secretary, International and Foreign Language Education, U.S. Department of Education; Anthony Jackson, Vice President of Education, Asia Society; Nicole Anderson, Diversity and Equal Access Committee, Association of California School Administrators; Dr. Lizabeth Fogel, Director of Education for Walt Disney Imagineering, The Walt Disney Studios and The Walt Disney Company; Justine Fischer, President, California State Parent Teacher Association; Dr. Ana M. Hernández, Assistant Professor of Multilingual and Multicultural Education, Coordinator of the Bilingual Authorization Program and Global Learning Networks, School of Education, California State University, San Marcos; Rosa Molina, Executive Director of the Association of Two-Way & Dual Language Education; Shelly Spiegel-Coleman, Executive Director, Californians Together; Dr. Yee Wan, Director, Multilingual Education Services, SCCOE; Dr. Emily Schell, Executive Director, California International Studies Project; Dr. Dave Long, former California Secretary of Education; former President of the California County Superintendents Educational Services Association; Nicole Naditz, World Language Teacher, Bella Vista High School, San Juan Unified School District; Instructional Quality Commissioner; Michael Switzer, Lead Teacher, Savanna High School, Anaheim Unified School District; Brent Wozniak, Instructional Director, Vaughn International Studies Academy, Vaughn Next Century Learning Center, San Fernando.
Student Ambassador Schools/Organizations: Bullis Charter School, Los Altos; Gilroy High School, Gilroy; Milpitas High School, Milpitas; Thrival World Academies
Note: The names and affiliations of all individuals were current at the time this report was developed.
In 2016, a variety of stakeholders, including kindergarten through college (K–16) educators, business and community members, and policy makers came together for California's first Global Education Summit. The purpose of the summit was to investigate the extent to which global literacy, as reflected through California's twenty-first-century education initiatives, is incorporated into instruction and learning in California schools. At the Summit, participants shared practices, reviewed research, and heard from experts to help inform their recommendations for instilling global competencies in all students as a critical twenty-first century skill. It is my pleasure to present their final report of findings and recommendations.
The information in this report is meant to encourage further inquiry, dialogue, and action among stakeholders through the California Global Education Network. Educators can continue to collaborate and support one another in bringing a stronger global focus into California's diverse classrooms.
California's kindergarten through grade twelve (K–12) student population of 6.2 million includes the largest number of immigrant families and English learners in the nation. A Blueprint for Great Schools Version 2.0 outlines "The California Way," which emphasizes a challenging and innovative education for all students that includes multilingualism, multiculturalism, and viewing the world with a global lens extending far beyond our borders. Reaching our goals of providing a globally connected education to California students starts with the individual: you. With that in mind, this report also offers a myriad of resources and current California initiatives to help foster global education and continue the conversation on increasing opportunities for all students to learn beyond borders.
Together we will continue to work to provide our students with an extraordinary education that prepares them for college, careers, and civic life in an increasingly interconnected world.
I would like to express my appreciation to the Longview Foundation, the Asia Society, and Santa Clara and Yolo County Offices of Education for their partner ship and support in making the 2016 California Global Education Summit an outstanding success.
State Superintendent of Public Instruction
In early 2016, nearly 150 educators, policymakers, and community and business leaders convened at California's first Global Education Summit. The overarching goal of the Summit was to explore existing statewide efforts and develop recommendations to improve and expand globally focused teaching and learning in California. The final recommendations in this report are the result of Summit activities and a statewide survey on the status of global education in California that helped to inform those activities.
Both days of the Summit included keynote speakers and panels of experts who shared their perspectives on global and multilingual education and provided insight into several models for professional learning and classroom implementation.
Following panel discussions, participants gathered in small groups to engage in dialogue around three key questions: (1) How can we build global competence in California's students? (2) How can local, regional, and state policies and leadership support this goal? (3) How can we leverage neighborhood, community, and business resources and perspectives to accomplish this goal?
Summit activities ultimately resulted in nine recommendations in the categories of Policy and Leadership; Teaching, Learning, and Schools; and Community and Business. These recommendations, listed below, are further detailed in this report and provide a foundation for the global education effort to be carried forward.
POLICY AND LEADERSHIP
- Make global competence for all prekindergarten through grade twelve (PK–12) students a priority.
- Build professional capacity and continuous improvement for teachers and leaders of global education in California.
- Develop global education models and strategies for dissemination and implementation, particularly focused on underrepresented students.
- Develop guidelines and resources that clarify and promote global education in classrooms, schools, and districts.
TEACHING, LEARNING, AND SCHOOLS
- Develop guidelines for embedding global education in all content areas, programs, grade levels, and teacher/administrator credential programs.
- Engage and celebrate students, families, and communities representing diverse backgrounds who present linguistic and cultural assets and resources.
- Collaborate with business and community partners to design and support professional learning programs for teachers and administrators with a local-to-global focus.
- Increase offerings and participation in world language and dual immersion programs that focus on global competence and lead to students developing proficiency in at least two languages.
COMMUNITY AND BUSINESS
- Identify resources and partnerships that support global education and a globally ready workforce.
Global education provides a real-world lens and opportunities for relevant learning to build global competence for all students. Global competence, defined as the ability to understand and take action on issues that matter in the world, is an educational equalizer and is imperative in the culturally, linguistically, economically, and politically interconnected twenty-first century. As a richly diverse state with an educational system experiencing rapid change and growth, California has an unprecedented opportunity to improve students' global competencies by strengthening support of global education efforts already underway throughout the state.
All Californians are vital in this effort and can have a great impact on carrying out the recommendations outlined in this report. By continuing the statewide conversation that began with the Summit, a new community of educators and stake holders—the California Global Education Network (CGEN)— will continue to develop partnerships and strategize on how to implement and sustain the Summit recommendations and make meaningful advances together. The CGEN Web page provides an ongoing opportunity for interested individuals and groups to share ideas and resources, learn from others, and take action to begin implementing the recommendations outlined in this report.
Note: The online CGEN community of practice can be accessed. This page also links to all resources from the Global Education Summit, including agendas, activities, keynote and panel resources, and survey results.
In 2016, the California Department of Education (CDE) held a two-day Global Education Summit, made possible by grant funding from the Longview Foundation. Over the course of several weeks, educators, policymakers, and community and business stakeholders gathered at two county offices of education to learn from each other and clarify thinking about global education and why it matters in California. To plan and carry out the Summit, the CDE assembled and collaborated with an advisory team of educators and experts known for their efforts to promote global education (see the Acknowledgments) and administered a statewide survey to explore the status of related efforts in California schools.
Global education in schools may include courses, programs, approaches, partnerships, and other supports designed to build "global competence" in students. Summit planners and participants based their activities on the Asia Society and the Council of Chief State School Officers's definition of global competence as "the capacity and disposition to understand and act on issues of global significance," and the capacities of globally competent students as those who are "able to engage in four competencies: to investigate the world beyond their immediate environment; to recognize differing perspectives including others' and their own; to effectively communicate ideas, in multiple languages, with diverse audiences; and to take action to improve conditions" (CDE 2014a, 941).
"California students who are globally competent are able to engage in four competencies: to investigate the world beyond their immediate environment; to recognize differing perspectives including others' and their own; to effectively communicate ideas, in multiple languages, with diverse audiences; and to take action to improve conditions." (CDE 2014a, 941).
The overarching goal of the Summit was to identify the state's needs, efforts, and model programs to inform the development of a series of recommended actions in several areas, including but not limited to: policy, leadership, and resources; teacher preparation and professional learning; and curriculum and instruction. Summit participants worked from the premise that global education need not be a separate effort and can take place within the existing context of any classroom, school, or district. Opportunities to develop global competencies in students exist across all content areas and in ongoing initiatives—and with guidance and support, any educator can make these connections transparent. The Summit provided a valuable opportunity for participants to share and learn about model efforts already underway in California and become more informed about available resources, including opportunities to partner with organizations that provide services such as professional development, grant funding, classroom resources, and student and teacher exchange opportunities (see the CGEN Web page).
THE CASE FOR GLOBAL EDUCATION
There are several factors that have led policymakers nationwide to recognize that global competence is an imperative for all students. A recent National Education Association Policy Brief stated that as world economies become more interdependent, society becomes increasingly linguistically and culturally diverse, and global challenges such as transmittable diseases, natural disasters, global warming, and poverty increase in intensity, a call for coordinated global responses and an understanding of other languages and cultures among those who facilitate communications is essential (NEA 2010).
California is not alone in its efforts to increase awareness that global competence is a critical twenty-first-century skill. In fact, global education has become embedded into the policy agendas and initiatives of more than 50 percent of states, as evident through the infusion of global education into standards and frameworks, global education task forces and councils, summits, reports, and even state-level global education coordinator positions. North Carolina, for example, established global education policies incrementally between 2000 and 2015 in an effort to build systematic capacity to integrate global content and perspectives, language learning, international partnerships, and teacher training into the K–12 state educational system (Tichnor-Wagner 2016). Washington is another example of a state that has benefited from the efforts of the Global Washington collaborative, a partnership of nonprofit organizations that advocates for increased awareness of issues such as global health, sanitation, poverty, and world hunger—issues that directly connect with the career interests of many of today's youth and to the state's social, cultural, and economic climate (Global Washington 2015).
California is fortunate to have one of the most diverse populations in the country; this highlights the importance of fostering global citizenship in all students through global education. California has also shifted toward a more global focus in recent years, largely based on the population diversity and the many economic benefits that a globally competent workforce brings to a state's ability to compete successfully at an international level. As jobs become increasingly globally connected, corporations need more workers who can recognize and value diverse perspectives, participate in authentic dialogues, speak in multiple languages, create, innovate, and work both independently and collaboratively.
However, global education is not just about jobs; it is also about relationships and civic engagement in a vastly diverse context. Summit keynote speaker Anthony Jackson emphasized that schools must produce students who are critical thinkers with strong social–emotional skills and community connections. In particular, Jackson stressed that while this is "important for all students … it's especially important … for racial and ethnic minority students and students from poor families" (Jackson 2016). Research indicates that "most American students, low-income and minority groups in particular, lag behind their peers in other countries in their knowledge of world geography, foreign languages, and cultures" (NEA 2010). All students, including those underserved communities, deserve the opportunity to obtain a global education and its many benefits. Global education makes content and curricula richer, accessible, and more relatable by offering students a myriad of lenses and real-world learning opportunities. Global competence is an imperative in a world economy—a culturally and linguistically interconnected world—and is a skill that any student can achieve, thereby leveling the educational playing field.
"Globally competent students see themselves as actors, not bystanders. It's especially important for racial and ethnic minority students and students from poor families. Many of the students that we work with in our schools . . . they may not travel beyond their neighborhood much less the world itself. Most of the kids, they don't get a chance to travel outside of their neighborhoods, and yet to know that they have the power to change the world starting in their own neighborhoods is really absolutely essential. A big part of leveling the playing field . . . is opening up the horizons of possibility for all students and inculcating in them a belief they may be poor, their communities may not have the resources that others do, but they have the right and the responsibility to try to compete and collaborate on a global stage." (Jackson 2016)
THE CALIFORNIA CONTEXT
As a major international player, California ranks as the world's sixth largest economy (California Department of Finance 2015). Over the past quarter century, jobs related to international trade in California have increased well over 100 percent, positioning the state as a national leader the economic value and number of companies conducting business with other countries particularly in importing and exporting goods and services (International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce 2015 (PDF)).
CALIFORNIA'S TOP EXPORTS: Technology, transportation equipment, machinery, chemicals, agriculture
CALIFORNIA'S TOP FIVE EXPORT MARKETS: Mexico, Canada, China, Japan, Hong Kong
Source: International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce 2015 (PDF)
California is also the most populous state and is rich with cultural, linguistic, ethnic, and racial diversity.
In fact, California is one of only five states in the nation that is considered majority– minority, with 61.5 percent of the population identified as nonwhite. California also has the largest Hispanic, American Indian, Alaskan Native, and Asian populations of any state (United States Census Bureau 2015). This diversity ensures that California students have "the opportunity to learn and work with people from different backgrounds" and that they will "not see difference as a threat. They are going to see it as an opportunity" (Jackson 2016). Diversity allows an easier inclusion of global ideas that can help "break down the schisms between ‘us' and ‘them' that sometimes pervade school cultures to develop a broader collective identity" (Asia Society 2008). A student population of nearly 6.2 million offers tremendous opportunity to capitalize on this talent, drive, and creativity to build California's future. The state champions its diversity as a unique asset for its schools, communities, and the state infrastructure.
California's education system serves as a model in educational pedagogy that other states and countries learn from and strive to replicate. For example, California is well-known for its ability to attract international students and scholars to attend and work at its many esteemed colleges and universities. Of the nearly one million international students nationwide, California is among the top 10 states experiencing a double-digit growth rate over the last year (Institute of International Education 2016). In 2015, California's 135,000 international students contributed approximately $4.6 billion to the state's economy, creating or supporting approximately 53,000 jobs (National Association of Foreign Student Advisers, Association of International Educators 2016). The presence of students from abroad not only diversifies and enriches California's population, but also contributes a wide range of new ideas, talent, and economic benefits to the state.
As evident throughout this report, California educators and scholars recognize the vital role of education in preserving and enhancing the state's position as a global leader in education, business, and industry as well as the imperative to develop students' capacity to fully engage and participate in a globally interconnected society. Recent changes at both national and state levels, such as the transition to common sets of standards and increased flexibility and control over state assessment and accountability systems, provide new opportunities for California's global education efforts. Increased local authority allows more opportunities for cross-disciplinary collaboration within schools and among teacher teams to align lessons by theme, and especially at the secondary level, encourage cross-departmental instructional planning. California's recently updated curriculum frameworks support these efforts, specifically calling out global competencies and embedding a global theme throughout.
The opportunities afforded by California's economic ties, diverse population, and the priority placed on building twenty-first-century skills bring challenges. California schools and districts maintain autonomy over the degree to which they incorporate programming that best meets the needs of their student populations, including programming that promotes global education. This autonomy naturally leads to some districts serving as models for global education, offering language immersion programs, interdisciplinary courses, and study abroad and intercultural exchange opportunities (see the CGEN Web page), while other districts and schools may not yet have the capacity or considered the place of global education in the context of twenty-first-century learning. Inconsistent approaches may result in a statewide student population that does not receive equal opportunity to acquire the knowledge and skills required to participate fully in a global society upon graduation from high school.
In an effort to explore California's educational climate, the CDE disseminated an online survey prior to the Summit to assess current world language, global education, and international study programs in California's K–12 institutions. This survey echoed many of the findings found across the nation, highlighting the need to provide more consistent opportunities in global education.
California's Global Education Summit provided a unique platform to explore this challenge in depth and begin efforts to increase support to schools and districts in an exciting and unprecedented opportunity to make meaningful advances together.
"International experience is one of the most important components of a 21st century education. Studying abroad is one of the best ways undergraduate and graduate students gain the international experience necessary to succeed in today's global workforce. And studying in another country prepares students to be real contributors to working across borders to address key issues in the world we share." (Institute of International Education, Open Doors Report 2015)
2015 Global Education Survey of California Schools That Offer World Language Instruction (any language in addition to English)
- 39 percent offer no world languages
- 29 percent offer beginning instruction
- 21 percent offer intermediate instruction
- 17 percent offer advanced instruction
- 17 percent offer one-way immersion
- 7 percent offer two-way immersion
- 8 percent offer bilingual instruction
- 24 percent of survey respondents offer or support programs that lead to biliteracy
The recommendations and strategies outlined in this section were generated by the collective ideas and suggestions of participants and refined through the activities of the Summit. They are divided into three sections: policy and leadership; teaching, learning and schools; and community and business. Together, they reflect the shared scholarship, deep conversations, diverse perspectives and experiences, and realities of California's education system. As with all complex issues in education, these recommendations and strategies may overlap categories, highlighting the need for collaboration and communication across all stakeholder groups.
POLICY AND LEADERSHIP: How will local, regional, and state policies and leadership support global competence for California's students?
Recommendation 1: Make global competence for all students a priority.
- Increase opportunities for all students to engage in global education and learn world languages in elementary, middle, and high schools.
- Increase the number of students earning the State Seal of Biliteracy.
- Create ways to formally recognize student achievement in global competence.
- Integrate global competence into existing standards and frameworks, as appropriate, as those documents are revised.
- Develop a statewide group to represent all stakeholders and serve as a robust network to promote, support, and recognize effective global education programs.
Recommendation 2: Build professional capacity and continuous improvement for teachers and leaders of global education in California.
- Embed global learning experiences and expectations in teacher and administrator credential programs.
- Create a Global Education Certificate, badging programs, or other formal recognition for educators.
- Prioritize recruitment, training, and support of multilingual teachers, not only for world language courses and dual language immersion programs, but in other content areas as well.
- Provide support, financial or institutional, and increased recognition for K–12 teachers to participate in international field studies and professional learning experiences in global education.
- Institute a "global ready" designation for schools and districts, that provides standards, incentives, and multiple pathways for exemplary K–12 global education programs.
- Create a statewide cohort of Global Education Teacher Leaders to encourage contributions to local, regional, and statewide professional learning activities.
Recommendation 3: Develop global education models and strategies for dissemination and implementation.
- Define global competence indicators and benchmarks for K–12 students.
- Articulate strategic support for English language development and world language learning as a key component of global education and demonstrate the value of multilingual/multicultural proficiency for all students.
- Identify, develop, and share effective strategies for integrating global education at all levels (class, school, district, county) and across all grades and subject areas to include models of effective interdisciplinary global education programs.
Recommendation 4: Develop guidelines and resources that clarify and promote global education in K–12 classrooms, schools, and districts.
- Establish sample evaluation criteria for global competence for use in the development of classroom, school, and district performance assessments.
- Develop sample portfolio assessments to demonstrate, analyze, and report student learning in global education programs.
- Provide guidance on how to use evidence to demonstrate, strengthen, and promote global education programs, practices, and policies.
- Suggest ways to allocate funding for administration, professional learning, and evaluation of student development in global education programs.
- Create sample language for Local Control Accountability Plans and examples of how existing funding can be used to build/expand global education programs.
- Engage families in the importance of global literacy, biliteracy, and multilingualism to strengthen their support of, and involvement in, related programs, curriculum, and other schoolwide efforts.
TEACHING, LEARNING, AND SCHOOLS: How will we build global competence in California's students through teaching and learning in twenty-first-century schools and local communities?
Recommendation 5: Develop guidelines for embedding global education in all content areas, programs, grade levels, and teacher/administrator credential programs.
- Identify where support and opportunities for global learning exist in state standards and frameworks, including P21.
- Develop a model learning and instructional progression for global competence across the grades and professional development continuum.
- Emphasize cultural relevance and culturally proficient instruction/leadership as a core element of schools, communities, and the world.
- Identify alignment and connections among global education, environmental literacy, and civic education.
- Embed global education in career pathways, career technical education courses, and Linked Learning academies.
- Use technologies to engage students in synchronous and asynchronous, real-world discussions and problem solving with peers in other countries.
- Identify examples of ways that teacher/administrator credential programs may apply a global lens to teaching and leadership.
Recommendation 6: Engage and celebrate students, families, and communities representing diverse backgrounds who present linguistic and cultural assets and resources.
- Develop and share strategies for effectively integrating student/family/ community assets into global education programs.
- Create recognition programs for teachers, students, families, and community groups that contribute to global competence in schools and districts.
- Create a clearinghouse or database of community groups and resources for educators to obtain information, local contacts, instructional resources, and the like.
Recommendation 7: In collaboration with business and community partners, design and support professional learning programs for teachers and administrators with a local-to-global focus.
- Provide opportunities for teachers to shadow and learn from exemplary global educators as well as business and community partners.
- Coordinate K–12 professional learning opportunities with university scholars, California Subject Matter Projects, county offices of education, and other statewide or local organizations dedicated to global education.
- Infuse global competence across the spectrum, including teacher preparation programs, induction programs, and professional learning communities.
Recommendation 8: Increase offerings and participation in world language and dual immersion programs in PK–20 that focus on global competence and lead to students developing proficiency in at least two languages.
- Embed interpersonal communication skills in world language and dual immersion programs to provide practical and academic language development.
- Connect language content with academic content.
- Articulate and take opportunities to make explicit connections between language proficiency and global competence in world language and other courses.
- Use project-based learning and technologies to engage students in developing global concepts, skills, and dispositions.
- Collaborate with California Subject Matter Projects, county offices of education, and colleges and universities to emphasize global affairs (e.g., economics, societies, cultures, and politics) in world language courses and programs.
COMMUNITY AND BUSINESS: How should we leverage neighborhood, community, and business resources and perspectives to build global competency in California's students?
Recommendation 9: Identify resources and partnerships that support global education and a global ready workforce.
- Form partnerships with governmental and nongovernmental agencies to assist schools and districts with implementation of global education programs.
- Provide authentic opportunities, in-person and virtual, to develop global competence through student internships, job shadowing, and mentoring with business and industry partners.
- Create and support networks that foster global education champions (e.g., university scholars, community-based organizations, informal educators, professional societies).
- Create and share a Web-based resource that provides tools and strategies for identifying and building relationships with community organizations, education partners, and global education champions.
- Design and implement community learning events that bring together students, educators, community stakeholders, and business to help connect global issues and the local community.
- Capture and share best practices that address community needs and are culturally relevant.
- Collaborate with local districts, community organizations, and local service providers to identify strengths and challenges in the local community and identify connections to global issues.
California's education system is undergoing a period of rapid change. Standards and frameworks focus on developing critical thinking skills, which help students form evidence-based reasoning, engage in respectful academic dialogue, consider the ideas of others, and address complex ideas and societal issues. Additionally, the development of new state accountability and assessment systems is underway, and the Local Control Funding Formula allows districts and local educational agencies to have greater control over how they use state funds. Professional learning networks are responsive to these changes and support educators statewide. In this context and increased focus on leveraging resources, local efforts can have a great impact on furthering the goals of the Summit.
The reality of California schools is that they are diverse, the reality of California's economy is that it is global, and the reality of society is that it is increasingly interconnected. Today's graduates need to be well-rounded and globally competent to thrive, not just survive, in the ever-changing twenty-first-century environment; therefore, it is time to embrace global education and bring to life the recommended actions of Summit participants. Improving global education in California is not a task that can be accomplished overnight. It will take all Californians—political leaders, superintendents, principals, teachers, communities, families, students, and other stakeholders—to see this through and guarantee that all students achieve critical global competencies.
The 2016 Summit was the beginning of a statewide conversation about global education in California, and the CGEN will take the lead on moving this effort forward. The goal is that over time, messages about global competency will begin to be commonplace throughout the state—what it is; why it is important; how multilingual education and biliteracy benefit students not only in their academic endeavors, but also well into their future careers; how to identify opportunities in existing curriculum to apply a global lens; and how to utilize local communities as global gateways. The CGEN provides an opportunity for global education advocates to join this effort, work to implement the recommendations in this report, and contribute to a newsletter and Web page to help disseminate information, resources, and opportunities.
As a starting point, CDE leadership team members are collaborating with members of the advisory team to take action focused on Recommendation 5 to provide examples of how to embed global education in a variety of content areas, programs, and grade levels. For example, presentations are scheduled at several statewide conferences where CDE staff and advisory committee members will co-present an overview of this report and model how to infuse global competence across content areas. Conference participants will identify where support and opportunities for global learning exist in state standards and frameworks, and revamp lessons with the intent of developing global competence. They will also be encouraged to join the CGEN and share resources.
Access the CGEN Web page to learn more about upcoming efforts and to sign up for the newsletter. All California educators are a key part of this effort and can make a difference in his or her sphere of influence, even if on a small scale. In the words of one Summit participant:
"Just do it!"
"It is not necessary to wait for ‘everything to be in place' before you start."
A number of schools in California have already incorporated programs that strongly support international awareness. These include student and teacher exchanges, sister school relationships, or International Baccalaureate programs. Such programs go beyond the general curriculum to specifically target the intellectual and academic skills that give students a competitive edge in college and career choices. However, the reality is that not all schools and students have access to such programs, and these opportunities are not the only way that students can develop global competencies. A variety of past and current efforts in California provide support to educators in globalizing their curricular offerings for all students, at all ability levels. For example, themes that encompass global education exist in all of California's content standards and frameworks, in nearly all subject areas.
"California's wealth of diverse linguistic and cultural resources reflected in its people are extraordinarily valuable assets for the state. All of California's students should be provided instruction and opportunities to appreciate, understand, and work with individuals from different backgrounds. Furthermore, they should learn about global issues—those that impact more than their neighborhoods and the nation— and develop an understanding of different perspectives and the interrelationships among all humans." (CDE 2014a, 950)
ENGLISH LANGUAGE ARTS/ENGLISH LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT: PRIORITIZING GLOBAL COMPETENCE IN THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY
The content and focus of the 2014 English Language Arts/English Language Development Curriculum Framework for California Public Schools Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve broke new ground as the first framework in the nation to fully integrate ELD instruction throughout English Language Arts instruction (CDE 2014a). This guidance document for educators emphasizes culturally responsive teaching, access, and equity for all students. It dedicates an entire chapter to essential twenty-first-century skills, including global competencies that students need not only to function, but to excel in a rapidly changing, highly-connected global society.
As the state with the single largest English learner (EL) population in the country, California is a nationwide leader in ELD theory and practice and is home to several advocacy organizations that promote multilingualism and biliteracy. California's efforts to update and create new resources designed to support the instruction of ELs are well-documented and demonstrate the state's commitment not only to developing ELs' academic skills in English, but also to valuing and embracing the linguistic and cultural heritage of its diverse student population as a unique strength.
WORLD LANGUAGES: AN ESSENTIAL COMPONENT OF GLOBAL COMPETENCE
For decades, the CDE has strongly advocated instruction in world languages as an essential component of globally focused education for all California students, beginning in the elementary grades. The World Language Content Standards for California Public Schools (PDF) have been in place since 2009 and will be updated by 2018. The updated standards and associated frameworks will include a strong emphasis on language learning as an essential component of a well-rounded education in the twenty-first century. The ability to interact with people of different languages, cultures, religions, and perspectives is critical in an increasingly interconnected world.
For many years, California schools and districts have been designing and implementing effective programming that fosters both the development of world language instruction for enrichment and support for ELs to ensure academic success. Such programming includes dual language learning, two-way bilingual immersion, maintenance bilingual immersion, and elementary transitional bilingual programs. Notably, California was the first state in the nation to issue a formal "Seal of Biliteracy" to graduating high school students who demonstrate proficiency in two or more languages (CDE 2012b. State Seal of Biliteracy).
This program was first implemented in 2012, and to date over 86,000 California students have earned this seal on their high school diploma. In 2016, the CDE received an award from the United States Department of Education recognizing the state as the national leader in the Seal of Biliteracy awarded to high school graduates. Since 2012, more than 20 other states have adopted the seal (CDE 2016d).
"Fluency in a second language helps our students be well-prepared to compete in a global marketplace. The gold seal on their high school diploma recognizes and celebrates a second language as an asset not just for themselves, but for our state, nation, and world." (CDE 2014a, 2)
To encourage a diverse teacher workforce and draw from the expertise of native language speakers in world language instruction, the CDE administers the Exchange Visitor Program for fully credentialed teachers from Spain and Mexico to teach in California K–12 schools. Additionally, several universities in California have agreements with other countries that enable them to recruit native speakers to teach in higher education, including teacher training programs.
HISTORY–SOCIAL SCIENCE: PROMOTING CRITICAL INQUIRY THROUGH A GLOBAL LENS
The History-Social Science Content Standards for California Public Schools (PDF) and the 2016 History-Social Science Framework present a variety of opportunities for students to achieve global competence through content and skill development in history, geography, civics, economics, and other social sciences, especially in such areas as human geography, world geography, or contemporary issues (CDE 2000; CDE Forthcoming). Inquiry-based learning supports the attainment of disciplinary literacy while also facilitating progress toward the goal of becoming a more civic-minded global citizen. For example, the Framework explicitly proposes that students reflect on global themes to understand the concepts of integration and disintegration through the studies of geopolitics; globalization; rights, religion, and identity; and a new role for the West. Students learn about the global past to make sense of the global present and unsolved conflicts that affect the world today and in the future. Additionally, the History Social Science Framework incorporates California's Environmental Principles and Concepts by examining questions about the influence of the environment on human migration, labor and economies, and the development of societies throughout history and around the world.
The History–Social Science Framework encourages "students to learn about their worlds from local to global perspectives in a deliberate and careful sequence . . . to develop thematic and conceptual understandings that span from the local to the global." (CDE Forthcoming, chapter 1).
The Framework also references the College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework for Social Studies State Standards , which emphasizes assessing historical sources and perspectives from different groups that range from the local to the global (National Council for the Social Studies 2013). The C3 Framework states that students should learn about "other nations' systems and practices [and] international institutions," in other words, become a civics-minded global citizen (CDE Forthcoming).
SCIENCE AND ENVIRONMENTAL LITERACY: OPPORTUNITIES FOR AUTHENTIC ENGAGEMENT IN TOPICS OF GLOBAL SIGNIFICANCE
The Next Generation Science Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve include significant connections with twenty-first-century skills, including global awareness (CDE Forthcoming). The Science Framework begins to prepare students to work in a global society starting in kindergarten and Environmental Literacy that "encompasses civic engagement and community involvement in diverse settings" is woven throughout (CDE Forthcoming). At every grade level, the Science Framework provides guidance for teaching about human impacts on Earth systems, including global climate change.
California's Environmental Principles and Concepts are infused throughout the framework and examples are identified at each grade level. High school courses, in particular, offer a rich context for building students' understanding of Environmental Principle V, which focuses on the role of diverse perspectives on the decisions that result in local, state, national, and global environmental policies. At this level, students can use their knowledge of local environmental issues to consider how their decisions influence both global environmental issues and international policy.
CAREER TECHNICAL EDUCATION: PREPARING STUDENTS FOR A GLOBAL WORKFORCE
The goal of career technical education (CTE) is to prepare students for the careers of their choice and focus on the critical academic, technical, and employability skills needed for college and career success. CTE offers a natural platform on which to build global competencies. Well-designed CTE programs of study with a global focus can provide the rigorous and authentic contextualized learning necessary to prepare students for the competitive world economy and offer an engaging, motivating, and relevant education experience. The State Superintendent of Public Instruction's 2015 California Career Readiness Initiative contains 21 key objectives designed to support, sustain, and strengthen CTE around the state (CDE 2016b). All of these objectives have global connections, but a few stand out as being uniquely positioned to support the California global education effort. Examples include:
- Sustaining, strengthening, and expanding the California Career Pathways Trust program.
- Providing $900 million over three years to support and develop twenty-first-century career and college readiness programs throughout California through the Career Technical Education Incentive Grant program, the largest in the nation.
- Defining and promoting career readiness and twenty-first-century skills, including promotion of the CDE's Standards for Career Ready Practice (PDF), particularly Practice 9: "Work productively in teams while integrating cultural and global competence" (CDE 2014b).
"CTE programs should be preparing students for a fast-changing, knowledge-based global economy in which program graduates may find they are competing with workers in other countries. High-speed telecommunications, combined with rising levels of education, continuously expand global competition. Many higher-skill jobs and lower-skill jobs are being outsourced or moved offshore to countries where labor costs are lower and countries where workers possess a firm grasp of concepts and the ability to apply those concepts in new situations." (CDE 2007, xiii)
In 2015, the Asia Society, Longview Foundation, the Association for Career and Technical Education, and the National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium co-hosted an advisory committee meeting and discussion on preparing a global competent workforce through high-quality CTE, and the CDE was a key player in this effort. The result was a publication titled Preparing a Globally Competent Workforce Through High-Quality Career and Technical Education (PDF), which stresses the importance of preparing today's youths for a global economy and provides insight into what globally minded CTE programs look like at the classroom level (Monthey et al. 2015). The Career Pathways Trust program strongly supports efforts to infuse these global competencies into CTE programs statewide.
THE ARTS AND CREATIVITY: A RECOGNIZED LEADERSHIP COMPETENCE
Visual and performing arts offer multiple opportunities to build global competency in students. In 2011, the State Superintendent of Public Instruction formed an arts education task force to draft recommendations for arts education to be elevated to be a core subject available to all students. This action was taken in an effort to highlight and retain the vital role of the arts in developing creative expression and critical thinking skills necessary for twenty-first-century careers. The result of this collaborative effort is noted in A Blueprint for Creative Schools (PDF): "Democracy's sustainability hinges on fostering problem solving and creative invention … creativity is crucial to youth voice, the desire to learn, diversity, and public participation in an intercultural world," and "Media arts are an important component of twenty-first century global culture and of California's robust creative economy" (Agee 2015).
New developments in arts education in California, such as the long-awaited updating of the Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools (PDF), offer exciting possibilities to make more global education connections.
THE STATES NETWORK:
- is sponsored by the Asia Society and Longview Foundation.
- offers Webinars, conference calls, and annual conferences to connect states on global education efforts.
- promotes effective K–12 strategies for integrating international education content across the curriculum, successful approaches to creating world language programs, promotion of global competence, preparation for teachers to teach about the world, and an understanding of how international education promotes academic excellence and equity for all students.
The CDE participates in regular meetings with the National Council of State Supervisors for Languages and, along with its California colleagues, collaborates on an ongoing basis with world language experts and advocates nationwide to support and strengthen language learning in California. In 2013, the CDE established a partnership with the Asia Society and joined the States Network on International Education , a group jointly sponsored by the Asia Society and the Longview Foundation . The CDE shares the network's mission to "raise awareness, encourage collaboration on, and stimulate needed policies and investments in K–12 education about world regions, languages, and cultures" and is active in activities organized by the sponsoring organizations.
As a member of the Partnership for 21st Century Learning, the CDE works across content areas and solicits input from a wide range of stakeholders to empower California educators to support their students in attaining the attitudes, skills, and knowledge to understand and participate in a globally connected world. The Partnership for 21st Century Learning's Framework for State Action on Global Education (PDF) defines these attributes as students having the capacity to (1) explore their own cultures, make comparisons with other cultures, and investigate global issues and challenges; (2) improve their critical thinking, problem solving, perspective-taking, and research skills; and (3) develop awareness of cultural diversity and global issues (Partnership for 21st Century Learning 2014).
As a member of this partnership, California provides and benefits from valuable tools and resources for educators and communities. By nourishing the natural curiosity of youths and guiding students toward more global perspectives and understandings of political, social, environmental, and workforce issues worldwide, California educators can help ensure their students are equipped to thrive in the twenty-first century.
COORDINATED PROFESSIONAL LEARNING EFFORTS
Ongoing collaboration between the CDE and outside organizations provides a diverse array of professional learning opportunities for California educators and enhances their ability to grow students' academic skills and knowledge around global education. For example, the California Subject Matter Projects is a network of nine discipline-based projects that support professional learning for teachers. Three of these projects offer programs with a global focus: the California International Studies Project , the California World Language Project , and the California History-Social Science Project . Other organizations that provide globally focused professional learning include the California Language Teachers Association , the California Geographic Alliance , and the California Council for the Social Studies . Additionally, some programs within the state university system, county offices, and districts also serve as models for global education support for educators (see the CGEN Web page).
This report represents the passion and commitment of educators, policymakers, parents, and students across California who recognize that even as California is a leader, a trailblazer, it is but one participant on a global stage. As Erich Fromm wrote, we must feel "at home in the world" (Fromm 2009), seeing ourselves as not merely members of nations, but citizens of a global effort. This perspective starts with the students of this state. California is so richly diverse, and this diversity brings with it opportunities for students to realize that they can make unique, creative, and important contributions to their world. They are citizens with the passion and the duty to effect change in their communities and, by extension, the world.
Anthony Jackson, in his opening remarks to the Summit, framed this well, stating that all students are entitled to equal opportunities, and "education is the only way to make it so" (Jackson 2016). Global competency is the natural path to equality, valuing all discourse, all ideas.
The CDE extends its gratitude to the Longview Foundation, the Asia Society, the Santa Clara County Office of Education, the Yolo County Office of Education, advisory team members, and participants of the Summit for their support, leadership, and guidance on the contents of this final report—and for their passion and commitment to increasing educational equity for all of California's students.
RESOURCES FOR THE GLOBAL CLASSROOM
The Capstone™ Program —Advanced Placement program where students consider and evaluate multiple points of view to develop their own perspectives on complex issues and topics.
Choices for the 21st Century Education —a program of Brown University's Watson Institute for International Studies that provides teaching resources on historical and current international issues, professional development for classroom teachers, and programs for students.
Earth Trends, World Resources Institute —an online database that focuses on world environmental, social, and economic trends.
Generation Global —providing American students with the skills and competencies to become global citizens. This academic program encourages virtual global cultural exchange.
Geo Badge —an initiative that enables individuals and organizations to work together to advance geography awareness by engaging in practical, real=world projects and skill building.
The Global Dialogue Project —promotes intercultural dialogue between leaders, citizens, and students on topics relating to peace, in an effort to build greater global citizenship.
Global Kids —uses interactive and experiential methods to educate youths about critical international and foreign policy issues. Through its professional development program, Global Kids also provides educators with strategies for integrating a youth development approach and international issues into their classrooms.
Global Navigator High School Study Abroad Programs —offers scholarships for students to study abroad with a choice of three focus areas: Language and Culture, Service and Leadership, and Global Discovery.
Global Nomads Group —uses videoconferencing and other interactive technologies to bring young people together across cultural and national boundaries to examine world issues and to learn from experts in a variety of fields. Web site includes lesson plans, videos, and other resources for current and past programs.
GlobalSchoolNet.org —helps teachers find learning partners and projects to engage in international project-based learning.
My Name, My Identity —campaign to bring awareness to the importance of respecting one's name and identity in schools and build a respectful and caring culture in school communities.
National Geographic Educators —multimedia activities, lessons, and units aligned with national standards.
National History Day —a curriculum of hands-on experiences and presentations that makes history come alive for students by engaging them in the discovery of the historical, cultural, and social experiences of the past.
Peace Corps World Wise Schools —lesson plans based on the experiences of Peace Corps volunteers, including multimedia and opportunities to connect classrooms with current volunteers and match returned volunteer speakers with interested groups.
Primary Source —promotes history and humanities education by connecting educators to people and cultures throughout the world.
Project Zero Visible Thinking Routines —a set of practices that include an emphasis on thinking through art and the role of cultural forces.
Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education (SPICE) —provides curriculum resources, workshops, and other resources to internationalize elementary and secondary schools.
STARTALK —offers K–16 students and teachers of critical languages creative and engaging summer experiences that exemplify best practices in language education and teacher development.
Teacher Guide to K–12 Global Education Grade-Level Indicators (PDF)—provides grade-by-grade indicators for global knowledge and skills for teachers and students.
TeachUNICEF —provides educators with global learning resources and programs that engage students in an exploration of humanitarian issues and inspires them to take action to improve their world.
The World and I —e-magazine with lesson plans and multimedia resources on a variety of international topics.
RESOURCES FOR PROFESSIONAL LEARNING AND IMPLEMENTATION SUPPORT
The California Chamber of Commerce (CCC) —an organization focused on world affairs and international trade issues. The CCC is an energetic advocate for legislation to establish the California Subject Matter Projects and was an active proponent of the P21 legislation.
California Council for the Social Studies —a professional organization to support teachers to ensure students understand the value and fragility of democracy, develop a keen sense of ethics and citizenship, and care deeply about the quality of life in their communities, nation, and world.
The California History-Social Science Project —a collaborative dedicated to improving classroom instruction, student learning, and literacy through a research-based approach that focuses on historical and social science content with disciplinary understanding, critical thinking, and the development of student literacy.
The California International Studies Project (CISP) —works to increase PK–12 teacher competence in world history and global studies through institutes and work shops focused on global issues, cultural and historic knowledge, twenty-first-century skills, interdisciplinary studies, and equity of access for all students.
California State University International Programs —a systemwide program that provides students an affordable opportunity to continue their studies abroad for a full academic year.
The California World Language Project —a collaborative, statewide network that sponsors professional development programs for world language educators intended to strengthen the teaching of languages and cultures in California.
CalAbroad: Study Abroad for California —provides resources and opportunities for study abroad for students at two- and four-year colleges and universities, both public and independent.
Digital Promise Global —aims to spur innovation in order to improve the opportunity to learn around the world, through technology, research, and collaborative partner ships with global educators, researchers, and entrepreneurs.
Fullerton International Resources for Students and Teachers (FIRST) —offers interdisciplinary programs that focus on improving knowledge of the world by exploring international themes and issues inherent in geography, economics, government, sociology, anthropology, world and U.S. history, regions, cultures, and religions.
Global Competence Certificate —the premier online graduate-level certificate program in global competence education for in-service educators.
The International Studies Schools Network —a professional community of K–12 schools that fully integrate global education across the curriculum through a unique combination of professional development, globally focused curriculum tools, project-based learning, and authentic assessment.
International Studies Teacher Education Project (ISTEP) —provides professional learning programs and resources to develop global competence and support knowledgeable, responsible, and active global citizens.
Longview Foundation —resources page links to many organizations and projects engaged in this work.
National Council for the Social Studies —national membership association for social studies educators that provides information on conferences and other professional development opportunities, teaching resources, standards, and advocacy.
United Nations Cyber Schoolbus —central site for the United Nations Global Teaching and Learning Project, promoting education about international education and the United Nations, with teaching materials and activities designed for K–12 educational use and for training teachers.
United States Board on Books for Young People (USBBY) —The U.S. national section of the International Board on Books for Young People promotes international understanding through literature for children and teenagers.
University of California, Santa Barbara—houses the Global and International Studies Program .
World Affairs Council —Inspiring youths to be the global citizens and international leaders of tomorrow. Through a variety of initiatives such as educational programs events, scholarships and a youth outreach initiative, regional World Affairs Councils strive to achieve the mission of exploring issues and opportunities that transcend borders.
World Savvy —a global education nonprofit, working to educate and engage youths in community and world affairs, to prepare them to learn, work, and live as responsible global citizens.
Several Summit participants hosted a "tables" session on Day 2 to share classroom perspectives of what global education looks like in one or more content areas; examples of efforts supporting global education through mission statements, curriculum design, and professional development; partnerships between schools and outside organizations; and immersion or other language programs. Table hosts provided posters, handouts, and other artifacts to encourage conversation among participants. These sessions helped lay the groundwork for the CGEN by facilitating networking, small-group conversation, information sharing, and brainstorming.
The CISP and The Global Dialogue Program: Maria Gutierrez-Stearn, Gary Kroesch, and Michelle Mazzeo, CISP Directors from San Joaquin County, San Diego State University, and Sonoma State University.
The Capstone Program: Michael Switzer and Poppy Hill, Savanna High School, Anaheim Union High School District.
Combining Civics and Environmental Literacy for a Global, Comprehensive Common Core Approach: Jose Flores, Brawley Union High School District.
Developing a Global Studies Program from the Ground Up: Tara Kajtaniak, Fortuna Union High School District.
Fullerton International Resources for Schools and Teachers (FIRST): Connie DeCapite, CISP Fullerton and Amanda Bush, Norte Vista High School in Alvord Unified School District.
Global Education in the World Language Classroom: Nicole Naditz, Bella Vista High School, San Juan Unified School District.
Global Navigator High School Programs: Duarte Silva, Executive Director, California World Language Project.
Human Geography with a Global Studies Approach: Kelly León, Sweetwater Union High School District; and Thomas Herman, Ph.D., the California Geographic Alliance.
iEARN-Orillas Global Learning Network: Kristin Brown, Ed.D., Co-director, iEARN-Orillas.
Implementing a Vision of Global Learning: Jessica Lura, Bullis Charter School, Los Altos, California.
International Studies Learning Center: Jennifer Balarie, Christopher Forfar, and Allison Murray, Los Angeles Unified School District.
Multiple Pathways to Biliteracy: Shelly Spiegel-Coleman, Californians Together
Thrival World Academies: Emma Hiza, Cory Garrett, Camille Brewster, Aaron Jackson, and Alicia Eskridge, Thrival World Academy, Oakland Unified School District.
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