All for one, one for all.
Dedicated teachers are always looking for better ideas to meet the many challenges they face in school, especially as diversity increases in the student population. Cooperative learning methods provide teachers with effective ways to respond to diverse students by promoting academic achievement and cross-cultural understanding.
Teachers are not alone in coping with the culture shock they
may feel as they recognize the diversity among their students.
Students themselves may lack confidence in responding to students
from diverse backgrounds. Immigrant students, thrust into U.S.
classrooms for the first time, and native English speakers, unable
to communicate with newcomers in their school and unaware of how
to respond to the differences they see, can become alienated from
one another. Students and teachers need strategies to help turn
diversity into a positive force for developing themselves as individuals,
as well as supporting the growth of others.
Cooperative learning is a powerful educational approach for helping all students attain content standards and develop the interpersonal skills needed for succeeding in a multicultural world.
Key Elements of Successful Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning takes many forms and definitions, but most cooperative approaches involve small, heterogeneous teams, usually of four or five members, working together towards a group task in which each member is individually accountable for part of an outcome that cannot be completed unless the members work together; in other words, the group members are positively interdependent. A vivid example of interdependence can be found in the relationship between language-minority and language-majority students in two-way immersion programs. Native and non-native English speakers work together to become bilingual.
Positive interdependence is critical to the success of the cooperative
group, because the dynamic of interconnectedness helps students
learn to give and take--to realize that in the group, as well
as in much of life, each of us can do something, but none of us
can do everything. When cooperation is successful, synergy is
released, and the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts.
For cooperative groups to be effective, members should engage
in teambuilding activities and other tasks that deal explicitly
with the development of social skills needed for effective teamwork.
Members should also engage in group processing activities in which
they discuss the interpersonal skills that influence their effectiveness
in working together. When full cooperative learning structures are implemented, the benefits in student achievement often can be astounding (Williams, 2007).
The essence of the cooperative group is the development and maintenance of positive interdependence among team members. A sense of interconnectedness can help students transcend the gender, racial, cultural, linguistic, and other differences they may sense among themselves. These differences often are at the root of prejudice and other interpersonal stress that students experience in school.
Students need access to activities in which they learn to depend on each other as they ask for and receive help from one another. Individualistic and competitive teaching methods certainly have their place in the instructional program, but they should be balanced with cooperative learning (Johnson and Johnson, 1994).
When students work in cooperative teams in which "all work for one" and "one works for all," team members receive the emotional and academic support that helps them persevere against the many obstacles they face in school. As cooperative norms are established, students are positively linked to others in the class who will help them and depend on them for completing shared tasks. By becoming knowers as well as learners in a supportive atmosphere, English learners can establish more equal-status relationships with their peers.
When the environment becomes more equitable, students are better
able to participate based on their actual, rather than their perceived
knowledge and abilities. Teamwork, fostered by positive interdependence
among the members, helps students learn valuable interpersonal
skills that will benefit them socially and vocationally.
Academic and language learning requires that students have opportunities to comprehend what they hear and read as well as express themselves in meaningful tasks (McGroarty, 1993). Cooperative learning creates natural, interactive contexts in which students have authentic reasons for listening to one another, asking questions, clarifying issues, and re-stating points of view.
Cooperative groups increase opportunities for students to produce and comprehend language and to obtain modeling and feedback from their peers. Much of the value of cooperative learning lies in the way that teamwork encourages students to engage in such high-level thinking skills as analyzing, explaining, synthesizing, and elaborating.
Interactive tasks also naturally stimulate and develop the students' cognitive, linguistic, and social abilities. Cooperative activities integrate the acquisition of these skills and create powerful learning opportunities. Such interactive experiences are particularly valuable for students who are learning English as a second language, who face simultaneously the challenges of language acquisition, academic learning, and social adaptation. By stimulating language input and output, cooperative strategies provide English learners with natural settings in which they can derive and express meaning from academic content (McGroarty, 1993, and Swain, 1985).
Students do not know instinctively how to interact effectively
with others. Social skills, like other skills, should be taught
and reinforced. Teambuilding activities will help students get
to know and trust one another. Other important social skills include
accepting and supporting one another and resolving conflicts constructively.
Teachers need to model positive interpersonal skills, have students
practice the skills, and encourage the students to process how
effectively they are performing the skills. Focusing on social
skill development will increase student achievement and enhance
the students' employability, interpersonal relationships, and
general psychological health (Johnson and Johnson, 1990).
Cooperative methods are flexible and can be adapted for students with special needs. In diverse language settings, differences in students' English language proficiencies make it necessary for teachers to modify the methods to ensure that English learners can participate fully with fellow team members. For example, teachers may ask one member of each team to be a bilingual facilitator who helps students work together. In addition, activities that focus on social skill development and teambuilding should be used frequently to facilitate cross-cultural communication and understanding among team members.
Teachers will also want to consider which language--English or
the native language or both--should be used by team members to
accomplish language, content, and cross-cultural goals. Frequent
use of group processing activities will help teachers and team
members identify and solve problems on the team that may be rooted
in cultural or linguistic differences.
Cooperative learning represents a valuable strategy for helping students attain high academic standards (Kagan, 1993; Cohen, 1994). After nearly fifty years of research and scores of studies, there is strong agreement among researchers that cooperative methods can and usually do have positive effects on student achievement. However, achievement effects are not seen for all forms of cooperative learning; the effects depend on the implementation of cooperative learning methods that are characterized by at least two essential elements: positive interdependence and individual accountability (Slavin, 1990).
In areas other than achievement, there is even broader consensus
about the effects of cooperative learning. For example, when students
of different racial or ethnic backgrounds work together toward
a common goal, they gain in liking and respect for one another.
Cooperative learning also improves social acceptance of mainstreamed
students with learning disabilities (Slavin, 1990).
Because groupwork dramatically changes the teacher's role, professional development is vital to the implementation of cooperative learning (Cohen, 1994). To learn and employ cooperative strategies, teachers need access to extensive professional development that includes (1) the theory and philosophy of cooperative learning; (2) demonstrations of cooperative methods; and (3) ongoing coaching and collegial support at the classroom level. Implementing cooperative approaches is greatly enhanced when teachers' have opportunities to work together and learn from one other. As teachers observe and coach each other, they provide essential support to ensure that they continue to acquire the methods and develop new strategies tailored to their own situations.
Although cooperative learning is widely endorsed as a pedagogical practice that promotes learning and socialization among students, teachers still struggle with how to introduce it into their classrooms (Gillies, 2007). Teachers must use strategies that challenge student thinking and scaffold their learning. Within the context of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and a climate of high stakes testing, cooperative learning can enhance student outcomes when teachers promote student engagement and learning across various levels and for students of diverse abilities.
Cooperative learning methods hold great promise for accelerating
students' attainment of high academic standards and the development
of the knowledge and abilities necessary for thriving in a multicultural
world. However, like other innovations, cooperative learning approaches
need to be tailored to the cultural and linguistic context in
which they are used. Designed and implemented by teachers who
are loyal to the key elements of cooperative learning and dedicated
to regarding diversity as a resource, cooperative approaches can
create supportive environments that enable students to succeed
academically, enhance their employability, and improve their interpersonal
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Gillies, Robyn M. Cooperative Learning: Integrating Theory and Practice. California: SAGE Publications, 2007.
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