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Description of Interventions

A Parent Empowerment petition requests the Local educational Agency (LEA) to implement one or more of four interventions.

A Parent Empowerment petition requests the Local educational Agency (LEA) of a Subject School to implement one or more of the four interventions identified below, or the federally mandated alternative governance arrangement.

Turnaround Model

As described in California Code of Regulations, Title 5 (5 CCR) Section 4803, a turnaround model is one in which an LEA must implement the following strategies:

  • Replace the principal who led the school prior to commencement of the turnaround model and grant the newly appointed school principal sufficient operational flexibility to implement a comprehensive approach in order to substantially improve student achievement and increase high school graduation rates.

  • Measure the effectiveness of staff who can work within the turnaround environment to meet the needs of students. This entails:

  • Screening all existing staff and rehiring no more than 50 percent.

  • Selecting new staff with the skills necessary to meet the needs of the students.

  • Implement strategies that are designed to recruit, place, and retain staff with the skills necessary to meet the needs of the students in the school.

  • Provide staff with ongoing, job-embedded, professional development aligned with the school's instructional program.  Professional development must be designed with school staff to ensure that they are equipped to facilitate effective teaching and learning and have the capacity to successfully implement reform strategies.

  • Adopt a new governance structure to obtain added flexibility in exchange for greater accountability.

  • Use data to identify and implement an instructional program that is research-based and aligned vertically as well as with State academic standards.

  • Promote the continuous use of student data to inform and differentiate instruction in order to meet the academic needs of individual students.

  • Establish schedules and implement strategies that provide increased learning time.

  • Provide appropriate social-emotional and community-oriented services and support for students.

A turnaround model may also implement other strategies, such as any of the required and permissible activities under the transformation model listed below, or a new school model (for example, a themed or dual language academy).

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Restart Model 

In the restart model laid out in 5 CCR Section 4804, an LEA converts a school, or closes and reopens a school, under a charter school operator, a charter management organization (CMO), or an education management organization (EMO) as defined below.

  • The charter school operator, CMO, or EMO must be selected through the rigorous review process required by 5 CCR Section 4802.2.

  • A CMO is a non-profit organization that operates or manages charter schools by centralizing or sharing certain functions and resources among schools.

  • An EMO is a for-profit or non-profit organization that provides “whole-school operation” services to an LEA.

  • A restart model must enroll, within the grades it serves, any former student who wishes to attend the school.

School Closure Model

According to 5 CCR Section 4805, School Closure occurs when an LEA closes the Subject School. The pupils enrolled in the now closed Subject School are then enrolled in other higher achieving schools in the district. These higher achieving schools should be within reasonable distance to the closed Subject School and may include, but are not limited to, charter schools or new schools.

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Transformation Model

In 5 CCR Section 4806 the transformation model is described as one in which an LEA implements the following four strategies:

  • Developing and increasing teacher and school leader effectiveness

  • Comprehensive instructional reform strategies

  • Increasing learning time and creating community-oriented schools

  • Providing operational flexibility and sustained support
Strategy 1: Developing and increasing teacher and school leader effectiveness

In developing and increasing teacher and school leader effectiveness, the LEA must enact these required activities:

  • Replace the principal who led the school prior to commencement of the transformation model.

  • Use rigorous, transparent, and equitable evaluation systems for teachers and principals that:

  • Take into account data on student growth as well as other factors such as multiple observation-based assessments and ongoing collections of professional practice reflective of student achievement and increased high-school graduations rates.

  • Are designed and developed with teacher and principal involvement.

  • Identify and reward school leaders, teachers, and other staff who have increased student achievement and high school graduation rates.

  • Identify and remove those school leaders, teachers, and other staff who have been provided the opportunities to improve their professional practice, but have not done so.

  • Provide staff with ongoing, job-embedded, professional development aligned with the school's instructional program.  Professional development must be designed with school staff to ensure that they are equipped to facilitate effective teaching and learning and have the capacity to successfully implement reform strategies.

  • Implement strategies that are designed to recruit, place, and retain staff with the skills necessary to meet the needs of the students in a transformation school.

An LEA may also implement other strategies to develop teachers' and school leaders' effectiveness, such as:

  • Providing additional compensation to attract and retain staff with the skills necessary to meet the needs of the students in a transformation school.

  • Instituting a system for measuring changes in instructional practices resulting from professional development.

  • Ensuring that the school is not required to accept a teacher without the mutual consent of the teacher and principal, regardless of the teacher's seniority.

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Strategy 2: Comprehensive instructional reform strategies

In creating comprehensive instructional reform strategies, the LEA must enact these required activities:

  • Using data to identify and implement an instructional program that is research-based and “vertically aligned” from one grade to the next as well as aligned with State academic standards.

  • Promoting the continuous use of student data to inform and differentiate instruction in order to meet the academic needs of individual students.

An LEA may also implement comprehensive instructional reform strategies, such as:

  • Conducting periodic reviews to ensure that the curriculum is being implemented with fidelity, is having the intended impact on student achievement, and is modified if ineffective.

  • Implementing a school wide "response-to-intervention" (RTI) model.

  • Providing additional supports and professional development to teachers and principals in order to implement effective strategies to support students with disabilities and limited-English-proficient students.

  • Using and integrating technology-based supports and interventions as part of the instructional program.

  • In secondary schools:

  • Increasing rigor by offering opportunities for students to enroll in advanced coursework, early-college high schools, dual enrollment programs, or thematic learning academies that prepare students for college and careers.

  • Providing appropriate supports designed to ensure that low-achieving students can take advantage of the aforementioned programs and coursework.

  • Improving student transition from middle to high school through summer transition programs or freshman academies.

  • Increasing graduation rates through, for example, credit-recovery programs, re-engagement strategies, smaller learning communities, competency-based instruction and performance-based assessments, and acceleration of basic reading and mathematics skills.

  • Establishing early-warning systems to identify students who may be at risk of failing to achieve to high standards or graduate.

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Strategy 3: Increasing learning time and creating community-oriented schools

In increasing learning time and creating community-oriented schools, the LEA must enact these required activities:

  • Establish schedules and implement strategies that provide increased learning time.

  • Provide ongoing mechanisms for family and community engagement.

An LEA may also implement other strategies that extend learning time and create community-oriented schools, such as:

  • Partnering with parents and parent organizations, faith- and community-based organizations, health clinics, and other State or local agencies to create safe school environments that meet students' social, emotional, and health needs.

  • Extending or restructuring the school day to add time to implement strategies that build relationships between students, faculty, and other school staff.

  • Implementing approaches to improve school climate and discipline.

  • Expanding the school program to offer full-day kindergarten or pre-kindergarten.
Strategy 4: Providing operational flexibility and sustained support

In providing operational flexibility and sustained support, the LEA must enact these required activities:

  • Give the school sufficient operational flexibility to implement fully a comprehensive approach to substantially improve student achievement outcomes and increase high school graduation rates.

  • Ensure that the school receives ongoing, intensive technical assistance and related support from the LEA, the State Educational Agency (SEA), or a designated external lead partner.

The LEA may also implement other strategies for providing operational flexibility and intensive support, such as:

  • Allowing the school to be run under a new governance arrangement, such as a turnaround division within the LEA or SEA.

  • Implementing a per-pupil school-based budget formula that is weighted based on student needs.

Alternative Governance Arrangement

Alternative governance is one in which an LEA institutes any other major restructuring of the school's governance arrangement that makes fundamental reforms, such as significant changes in the school's staffing and governance, to improve student academic achievement in the school and that has substantial promise of enabling the school to make adequate yearly progress as defined in the State plan under Section 6311(b)(2) of the federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

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Questions: Data Visualization and Reporting Office | DVRO@cde.ca.gov | 916-322-3245 
Last Reviewed: Wednesday, July 29, 2015

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