CALPADS Update FLASH #132Topics include: Aligning guidance regarding when to disenroll truants to support practices to reduce chronic absenteeism, truancy, and dropouts.
To: Local Educational Agency Representatives
From: California Department of Education – CALPADS Team
Date: (Revised) November 16, 2017 (NOTE: A January 28, 2020 update includes an additional web page for reference, which has been added to the first paragraph.)
Subject: CALPADS Update FLASH #132
Aligning Guidance Regarding When to Disenroll Truants to Support Practices to Reduce Chronic Absenteeism, Truancy, and Dropouts
Reducing chronic absenteeism and preventing/recovering dropouts is a state priority for the Local Control and Accountability Plan (LCAP). To support this priority, California Education Code (EC) Section 48240, which requires the governing board of each school district to appoint a supervisor of attendance, was amended by Assembly Bill (AB) 2815 (Chapter 829, Statutes of 2016) to specify new and expanded responsibilities for attendance supervisors to facilitate the implementation of more effective practices to address chronic absenteeism and truancy, and to prevent dropouts. These changes, which became effective on January 1, 2017, were announced in a letter sent to County and District Superintendents and Charter School Administrators in January 2017. This letter can be viewed here:
http://www.cde.ca.gov/nr/el/le/yr17ltr0120a.asp. [NOTE: The preceding link is no longer valid.] [Update, Jan. 28, 2020: Note that the same information contained in the January 2017 letter is available on the CDE Child Welfare and Attendance web page at https://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/ai/cw/.]
Quality data are necessary to effectively address chronic absenteeism. In order to support efforts to continue to improve the quality of the chronic absenteeism data collected in CALPADS, the current guidance regarding when local educational agencies (LEAs) should disenroll students has been modified, and the definition for the Enrollment Exit Date field and certain Student Exit Category codes have been changed. The new guidance is reflected in the following frequently asked questions (FAQs), and the revised definitions are provided in the last table below. A separate letter is being sent to your Superintendent or Charter School Administrator that discusses the same guidance contained in this Flash.
When should an LEA disenroll a student who has been enrolled and attending school and then becomes habitually truant and appears to have dropped out?
A student should be disenrolled as described in the table(s) below after following the statutory steps for addressing a truant.
Statutory Steps for Addressing Truancy
A student is identified as truant per EC Section 48260 (a)* and is reported as truant to the attendance supervisor or to the superintendent of the school district.
*48260(a) “A pupil subject to compulsory full-time education or to compulsory continuation education who is absent from school without a valid excuse three full days in one school year or tardy or absent for more than a 30-minute period during the school day without a valid excuse on three occasions in one school year, or any combination thereof…”
|The school district notifies the parent or guardian of the truant by the most cost-effective method possible, and includes in the notification specific information related to the student's unexcused absences per EC Section 48260.5.|
Hold a Meeting
The student is reported as truant for a third time in one school year, making the student habitually truant. An appropriate school employee makes a conscientious effort to hold at least one meeting with the parent and the student, but no meeting occurs to address the problem, and the student is no longer attending school.
Note: A student who is absent for nine consecutive days, or a student who is absent at least three consecutive days three different times (total of nine days) without a valid excuse, would be considered habitually truant.
Refer to SARB and Exit
|If no meeting occurs in Step 3 and the student is no longer attending school, the LEA is required to refer the student to the local or county School Attendance Review Board (SARB). At this point the LEA may disenroll the student in CALPADS, using the Student Exit Category of E140-Truant, No Known Enrollment, using the SARB referral date as the exit date.|
Exit After Full Investigation
|If no meeting occurs in Step 3 but the student is not referred to SARB because the student cannot be located after a full investigation has been conducted, the LEA may disenroll the student using the Student Exit Category of E140-Truant, No Known Enrollment, using the date that the investigation was completed as the exit date.|
Exit with Appropriate Exit Code
|If upon investigation the student is confirmed to be enrolled in another public California school, enrolled in a private school, or enrolled in another school outside of California, the LEA should disenroll the student in CALPADS with the appropriate Student Exit Category code using a date prior to the day the student began attendance at the other school as the exit date.|
Are LEAs responsible for students who are expected to return the following school year, but who do not show up (“no shows”)?
Assembly Bill 2815 specifies that it is the duty of the attendance supervisor to promote a culture of attendance and to establish a system that accurately tracks pupil attendance in order to ensure that pupils with attendance problems are identified as early as possible to provide applicable support services and interventions. Currently, students who are expected to return to the same school the next school year, but who do not show up, may not receive support services and interventions if they are not identified.
If they have not done so already, LEAs should put in place processes to follow up on “no shows” at the beginning of the school year to determine what happened to those students—whether they transferred to another LEA, moved out of the state or country, or appear to have dropped out. Similarly, unified school districts and high school districts in collaboration with their feeder elementary districts should seek to identify missing matriculated students that are expected to show up but do not.
LEAs that pre-enroll students should no longer use N470 – NoShow for students that were pre-enrolled because they were expected to attend and who do not show up. LEAs may choose to exit these students who do not show up within the first few days of school with an E140 - NoKnownEnrollTruant exit, so that those student enrollments do not impact class scheduling. Some student information systems enable LEAs to continue to track these students even if the students are no longer enrolled. LEAs may update the exit as they determine the student’s whereabouts with the appropriate exit code. During this time, LEAs should make SARB referrals for any students that the LEA has located but who continue to be absent, in order to identify such students at the earliest time possible for support services. Additionally, LEAs should continue to fully investigate the whereabouts of students that they cannot locate.
LEAs that do not pre-enroll students are not required to change E155 – YearEndEnrollmentExit exit codes for students who do not re-enroll. However, LEAs should refer to the SARB or fully investigate the whereabouts of those they cannot locate. In addition, since the California Department of Education (CDE) does identify and count students in grades seven through 12 who are exited with an E155 and who do not re-enroll in another California public school as dropouts, it is to an LEA’s benefit to change E155 exits for students who are found to have transferred to a private school or who have moved out of the state or country. LEAs do not need to change E155 exits for students who transferred to another California public school, or students who appear to have dropped out, since that information is already known within CALPADS.
Unfortunately, there is no existing report within CALPADS that identifies “no shows” at the beginning of the school year. LEAs need to rely on the data within their own student information systems to identify students that were exited with E155 and who do not re-enroll in another school in the LEA. For students who are still not found, LEAs can then manually look in CALPADS to identify whether any of these students have re-enrolled in a school in another LEA or are using a different Statewide Student Identifier (SSID).
The CDE has developed a change request for an Operational Data Store (ODS) extract that would provide the status of all prior year enrollments/exits, but this extract will not be available in 2017–18. The existing Exit Reason Discrepancy (ERD) report will identify students exited with E155 who do not enroll, but does not begin to identify these students until after Census Day. To view these students on the ERD report, LEAs would select for Reporting Period “2018–19 – Fall 1…”, and would select for Warning Type, “C – Potential Dropout”. After applying the filters, click on the “Exit Code” header until E155 is displayed in the column.
Finally, it should be noted that currently there are counties and LEAs that follow the statutory truancy practices and routinely follow up on all no-shows. When LEAs maintain CALPADS enrollment data on an ongoing basis, exiting all students at the end of the year and submitting enrollments to CALPADS at the beginning of the school year, locating students is expedited.
When should a student be exited with E400 – OtherOrUnknown?
Compulsory attendance laws apply to all students ages six up until age 18. Therefore, LEAs should always refer truants to a local or county School Attendance Review Board (SARB) or fully investigate the whereabouts of students who appear to have dropped out before disenrolling those students. The definitions for exit codes E140 – NoKnownEnrollTruant and E400 – OtherOrUnknown are being modified to clearly reflect current law. E140 should always be used for students ages six up until age 18 who are truant or who appear to have dropped out; E400 should only be used for students who are 18 years of age or older as they are no longer subject to compulsory attendance laws.
Changes to CALPADS Field and Code Definitions to Support Guidance
The following definitional changes to CALPADS fields and codes are effective now and will be reflected in the next publication of the relevant documents.
|Name||Current Definition||New Definition|
|Field 1.26: Enrollment Exit Date||The last date that a student attended a specific enrollment period. This should be the last day that the student generated average daily attendance for the school for that enrollment period. If the student never generated average daily attendance at the school (a no-show), then the exit date is one day before or equal to the Enrollment Start Date.||
The last date that a student attended within a specific enrollment period. This should be the last day that the student generated average daily attendance for the school for that enrollment period, unless the student is an habitual truant. For an habitual truant, the exit date should be:
|Code: Student Exit Category E140 - NoKnownEnrollTruant||Student withdrew from/left school, and the local educational agency is certifying that after taking the following truancy intervention steps, there is no evidence the student is in an academic program toward a diploma or its equivalent:1) When a pupil between the ages of 6 and 18 (inclusive) accumulates three absences of more than 30 minutes each without a valid excuse in one school year, the school district shall notify the pupil's parent or guardian by the notice required in Education Code Section 48260.5.2) After continued absences without a valid excuse following the notice, an appropriate district officer or employee shall make a conscientious effort to hold at least one conference with the parent or guardian and pupil as required in Education Code Section 48262.3) If it appears upon investigation that any parent, guardian, or other person having control or charge of the child is violating any of the provisions of California's compulsory education law, then the case should be referred to a school attendance review board (SARB) pursuant to Education Code Section 48291.||The student, age six up until age 18, is truant as defined by Education Code Section 48260 (a), and: (1) has been referred to a local or county School Attendance Review Board (SARB) by the local educational agency (LEA) after the LEA has taken all statutory truancy intervention steps; or (2) cannot be located by the LEA after the LEA has completed a full investigation as to the whereabouts of the student.|
|Code: Student Exit Category E400 - OtherOrUnknown||The student withdrew from/left school for reasons that cannot be determined or for reasons other than those described in the Student Exit Category codes. Do NOT use this code for students who were referred to truancy intervention, as outlined in E140 (NoKnownEnrollTruant)||The student is 18 years old or older and has been absent from school for reasons that cannot be determined or for reasons other than those described in the Student Exit Category codes. Do NOT use the Exit Code E400 for students who are ages 6 up until age 18.|
|Code: Student Exit Category N470 – No Show||The student’s enrollment was exited because the student was pre-enrolled in a school but did not show up as expected to attend the school. This exit represents a nullification of the pre-enrollment.||The student’s enrollment was exited because the student was pre-enrolled in a school but did not show up as expected to attend the school. This exit represents a nullification of the pre-enrollment and should only be used for a student’s first enrollment in CALPADS (e.g. kindergarten students or transfer students from a private school or a school outside of California.) This code should not be used for students who had been enrolled in the same school in the prior year and were expected to return.|
CALPADS currently does not enforce the resolution of E155 no-shows, nor does it validate the use of the N470, E140, or E400 exit codes. The CDE will analyze the data to determine how best to enhance CALPADS to support programmatic goals, including the addition of new validations. In the meantime, LEAs are strongly encouraged to consider ways to use their own data, as well as CALPADS, to identify habitually truant students and potential dropouts at the earliest time possible in order to get them back in school.
For more information on child welfare and attendance, dropout prevention, SARB, and truancy, visit the Attendance Improvement page on the CDE Web site: http://www.cde.ca.gov/ls/ai/.