Transcript: Grade 8 Academic Discussion - Part 2Grade Eight English Language Arts (ELA) Designated English Language Development (ELD) Academic Discussion Part Two Video Transcript.
Grade Eight English Language Arts Designated English Language Development: Academic Discussion—Part Two
Introductory Slides (00:00–00:17)
Narrator: Welcome to the California Department of Education Integrated and Designated English Language Development Transitional Kindergarten through Grade Twelve Video Series. This video is reproduced by permission of the publisher, Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
Teacher Introduces the Lesson (00:18–02:02)
Teacher: All right, now that we've brainstormed ideas, we're going to move to our next task. And in an academic discussion we use more precise language. We use complete sentences. A much more formal variety of language. And so, in our brainstorming, we just used everyday words, but what we're going to do right now is put our heads together to try to come up with some much stronger word choices that we could potentially use in our sentences. The first everyday word which we need to develop and, and substitute with more precise words is 'often'. And it's an adverb. And I'll remind you that an adverb is a word that describes a verb. Like 'impolitely' or 'reluctantly' or 'significantly' or 'quickly'. And so we're going to think of other adverbs, words that describe actions, that we could use instead of ‘often’. And I think, if I say, 'He, he often arrives late', or, 'He often helps me out in class,' I could also say, ‘He regularly arrives late.’ And another precise word that comes to mind is 'daily'. I might say, 'Daily, he assists me'. So, um, I don't know what's wrong with him today, he's just sitting there. He seems rather passive, because daily he assists me. He's very helpful. So 'daily' really means often, every single day. So, let's write ‘daily’. And I'm going to ask you to put your head together with your partner to see if you can brainstorm another precise word that means ‘often’ or ‘daily’, something someone does a lot. Right? Put your heads together to think of a more precise word.
Students Brainstorm Ideas in Partners and Share Out Whole Class (02:03–04:00)
Student 1: Another word we can put for ‘often’ is ‘frequently’.
Teacher: All right, students, I overheard a number of precise synonyms during your brainstorming. Right now, we're going to have a chance to hear some of your selections and I'm going to call on standing reporters. When you share the synonym that you and your partner came up with, don't just say the word, use your public voice and use a sentence frame. We'll be using a number of frames today, both in our discussion and in our 10-minute paper to discuss precise word choices. But the one I'd like you to use right now is, 'We would like to suggest the precise word...’ then say the word. So, I might say, for example, 'We would like to suggest the precise word “daily”.’ Let's get comfortable using the frame with my idea. Everyone, let's chorally read it.
Students: [Chorally] We would like to suggest the precise word ‘daily’.
Teacher: Thank you. All right may I have my ever-alert partner As please stand up. Partner As, out of your chairs. All right. So, José, in your public voice.
José: We would like to suggest a precise word ‘constantly’.
Teacher: Excellent choice. And a very appropriate choice. Constantly. So, I'd like to call next on Daniel. Daniel what word did you and your partner come up with?
Daniel: We would like to suggest a precise word ‘frequently’.
Teacher: Frequently. Thank you very much. Now, I'd like you to sit down if your word was ‘constantly’ or ‘frequently’. Please sit down, and remain standing if you have a different word. So, Chris, what's an additional synonym that you and your partner identified?
Chris: We would like to suggest a precise topic word ‘usually’.
Teacher: Usually. Very good. Very good. Very appropriate. Thank you so much. I documented your suggestions, 'constantly' 'frequently' and 'usually'. What I would like you to write down, let's put, let's write down 'constantly' and then write another of your choice.
Teacher Models Using a Frame to Support Developing Ideas (04:01–07:45)
Teacher: All right, students. Let's prepare to develop our first frame. I'd like to read the frame aloud and you just read along silently. All right? “One physical consequence, impact, outcome of sleep deprivation for adolescents is...” And as you can see, we're going to be discussing physical consequences. So, we have physical consequences, but we have three word choices that we could use to discuss consequences. One is 'consequence' but there are two synonyms. Two widely used academic synonyms for ‘consequence’. So, you have a selection. You may use one of these three words in your sentence. And, I might say, for example, 'One physical consequence of sleep deprivation for adolescents is...' and here we have this precise word choice, 'sleep deprivation', instead of saying 'being tired' is... And after 'is' I need a verb ending in -ing. I need that verb ending in -ing. So, I might say, ‘is having panic attacks', 'is getting sick often', 'is gaining weight even though you don't want to'. I need a verb ending in -ing like one of these three. So, when I think of writing a complete sentence here, this is a physical consequence. I'm going to review my list and I see my idea that I really wish to explore was getting sick a lot. So, what I'm going to do right here is write, 'One physical consequence' and 'consequence' is the word I've chosen to use, and I'll have to complete the frame of 'sleep deprivation for adolescence is...' and I need to take this idea of getting sick a lot, I need to develop that more. And, and 'a lot' is so casual, I think I'm going to say ‘getting sick’ and I'm going to use the term many of you suggested, 'frequently'. Getting sick frequently. But I want to develop my idea and elaborate a little bit until the result, getting sick frequently, and how does that affect their school work? What is the consequence? Getting sick frequently and missing, and instead of saying missing 'a lot' of school, what could I say? Instead of 'a lot' I could say 'many days' or missing 'several days’ of school. So, my complete sentence is, 'One physical consequence of sleep deprivation for adolescents is getting sick frequently and missing several days of school.' Let's get comfortable with the frame by reading my response. And let's echo read it. I'll read a phrase, and then you repeat after me. ‘One physical consequence of sleep deprivation…’
Students: [Chorally] One physical consequence of sleep deprivation…
Teacher: … for adolescents…
Students: [Chorally] … for adolescents…
Teacher: … is getting sick frequently…
Students: [Chorally] … is getting sick frequently…
Teacher: … and missing several days of school.
Students: [Chorally] … and missing several days of school.
Teacher: Take a look at the physical consequences. Remind yourself of which idea you wish to explore. Then I'm going to have you complete the frame right now and try to write a very detailed response. Not just, 'is getting sick', it's not just being moody, tell the result of that as well. So, write a detailed response. And I'd like you to not bother your neighbor, but put up a pen if I could help you develop your idea a little bit more. All right. Please begin writing.
[Students work independently.]
Students Practice Using Precise Language (07:46–09:33)
Teacher: Now, please put your reading guide card under our second everyday word that we're going to replace with a more precise synonym. And this everyday word, 'tired', is an adjective. So, we're going to brainstorm some adjectives that are more academic, and precise, and interesting to put in our papers. And one that we've seen in our first text is the adjective 'fatigued'. Let's think of some more precise words for ‘fatigued’. And a topic word that we saw in the reading was 'sleep-deprived', so let's all write in 'sleep-deprived'. Now, with your partner, I'd like you to put your heads together to see if you can come up with one other precise adjective that means really tired.
[Students work in pairs.]
Teacher: Thank you. One, two, three. This time I'd like our partner Bs to stand up. Partner Bs please stand up. I plan to call first on Marissa. Okay I plan to call first on Marissa and if that is the exact— if she shares the exact same adjective you came up with please sit down, please sit down. All right? But remain standing if you have an alternative suggestion. Thank you, Marissa.
Marissa: We would like to suggest the precise word ‘exhausted’.
Teacher: ‘Exhausted’. Thank you. What a strong adjective. Thank you so much. Please sit down if, like Marissa and her partner, you came up with ‘exhausted’. Thank you. And, I'd like next to hear from… uh, what if we hear from Isaac.
Isaac: We would like to suggest the precise word ‘lethargic’.
Teacher: ‘Lethargic, lethargic’. One of my personal favorites. Thank you. You have a number of suggestions here: fatigued, lethargic, sleep-deprived, exhausted, dull, and lifeless. I'd like you all to copy ‘lethargic’ and then to copy one other of your choice.