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Funding Sources to Support Newcomer Students

Provides a list of various funding source local educational agencies may use to support newcomer students and their families.

Local educational agencies (LEAs) receive a variety of funding sources at the local, state, and federal level. Many of these funding sources may be used to support newcomer students and families. The table below lists some of the different ways LEAs may use the funding sources to provide services and activities help newcomer students and their families acclimate and succeed in the California public school system.

Note that LEAs may receive all or some of the funding sources listed in the table below. This is not an exhaustive list of all of the possible funding sources an LEA may receive.
Funding Source Description Services and activities to support newcomer students and families
Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF)

Under LCFF, funding is apportioned to LEAs based on a number of calculations. Those calculations relate to the LCFF base grant, the supplemental grant add-on, and the concentration grant add-on. All LCFF funds are unrestricted and may be spent on anything allowable under California Education Code (EC).

LEAs are required to meet a minimum proportionality percentage to increase or improve services for unduplicated students, which include English Learners, low-income, and foster youth. LEAs may meet this requirement through LEA-wide, school-wide, or limited services that focus on the needs of a specific unduplicated student group(s). Note that the requirement to increase or improve services is not a spending requirement; it is a services and outcomes requirement. For more information related to the increased or improved services requirement, refer to the Local Control and Accountability Plans Frequently Asked Questions on the LCFF Frequently Asked Questions web page.

LEAs may want to consider conducting a needs assessment to determine which actions and services to support newcomer students could be funded with LCFF funds.

Below are some actions and services that could be funded with LCFF funds:

  • Welcoming week – more information can be found on the Welcoming America External link opens in new window or tab. website.
  • Hire teachers and staff that reflect the student demographic
  • Translate documents for parents in primary languages identified in the annual census data report (EC Section 48985)
  • Purchase devices with translation software installed for students to use at home
  • Purchase materials and equipment to ensure all students have access (e.g. textbooks, Chromebooks)
  • Implement the California Multi-Tiered System of Supports (MTSS) framework
  • Purchase curriculum and resources to support inclusive and positive school climate
  • Wraparound services
  • Mental health support (e.g. wellness center)
  • Field trips
  • Guest speakers and workshops
  • College and career readiness (e.g. concurrent enrollment at a community college)
  • Community schools partnership program – more information can be found below:
Title I, Part A Title I, Part A federal funds help to meet the educational needs of students in California schools. Funds are used to support effective, evidence-based educational strategies that close the achievement gap and enable the students to meet the state's challenging academic standards. A list of ways to use the Title I, Part A funding is available on the Title I, Part A Authorized Use of Funds web page.
Title I, Part C

Pursuant to the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) of 2015, Title 1, Part C, the purpose of the Migrant Education Program (MEP) is to ensure that all migratory students can meet the same challenging state academic standards that all children are expected to meet.

Students that meet the criteria for identification as a migratory child, can be supported by the MEP.

Funding supports high-quality comprehensive educational programs to help overcome educational disruption, cultural and language barriers, social isolation, varying health related needs, and other factors that inhibit the ability of migratory children to succeed in schools.

Below are some ways the Title I, Part C funding can be used:

  • Expanded learning (after school, Saturday, intersession) academic instruction
  • Summer academic instruction
  • School Readiness coordination and support
  • Dental, vision, mental health, and counseling services
  • Outdoor programs to apply the scientific method and for wellness
  • Transportation
  • Home visits
  • Tutoring
  • College access and preparation (including visits to colleges and college camps)
  • Parent training sessions (e.g. advocacy skills, technology skills, etc.)
  • Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Teaching Training and Professional Development
  • Self and cultural pride and music programs

For more information about services, see the MEP State Service Delivery Plan. For examples of programs, see the California Migrant Education Program Profile 2016 (PDF; 4MB).

Title II, Part A

The purpose of Title II is to:

  • Increase student achievement consistent with the challenging state academic standards
  • Improve the quality and effectiveness of teachers, principals, and other school leaders
  • Increase the number of teachers, principals, and other school leaders who are effective in improving student academic achievement in schools
  • Provide low-income and minority students greater access to effective teachers, principals, and other school leaders

For types of activities that can be carried out using this funding source, reference Title II, Part A Local Uses of Funds (20 United States Code [U.S.C.] Section 6613 External link opens in new window or tab.).

Title II, Part A uses of funds include, but are not limited to the following:

  • Developing and implementing initiatives to assist in recruiting, hiring, and retaining effective teachers, particularly in low-income schools with high percentages of ineffective teachers and high percentages of students who do not meet the challenging state academic standards to improve within-district equity in the distribution of teachers.
  • Providing high-quality, personalized professional development that is evidence-based, to the extent the state (in consultation with LEAs in the state) determines that such evidence is reasonably available, for teachers, instructional leadership teams, principals, or other school leaders, that is
  • focused on improving teaching and student learning and achievement, including supporting efforts to train teachers, principals, or other school leaders.
  • Providing training, technical assistance, and capacity-building in LEAs to assist teachers, principals, or other school leaders with selecting and implementing formative assessments, designing classroom-based assessments, and using data from such assessments to improve instruction and student academic achievement, which may include providing additional time for teachers to review student data and respond.

Title III, Part A English Learner (EL) Student Program

The purpose of the Title III English Learner Student Program is to ensure that all EL students attain English proficiency, develop high levels of academic attainment in English, and meet the same challenging state academic standards as all other students (20 U.S.C. Section 6812).

LEAs are eligible for Title III EL Student Programs subgrants on the basis of the number of EL students enrolled in schools served by the LEA.

Title III, Part A EL Student Program funding is used to provide three required activities that include:

  1. providing Language Instruction Educational Programs (LIEPs);
  2. providing effective professional development; and
  3. providing and implementing other effective activities and strategies that enhance or supplement LIEPs for English learners, which must include parent, family, and community (ESSA, Section 3115 [c][1]).

Funds may also be used for other authorized Subgrantee Activities to achieve any of the purposes described in ESSA Section 3115 (d)(1)-(9).

Some of the examples of these authorized activities to use Title III, Part A EL Student Program funding include:

  • Summer and enrichment programs (e.g. tutoring services, after-school activities, etc.)
  • Educational materials in EL students’ primary languages
  • Translation devices and software
  • Professional development and workshops for EL parents and families (e.g. English classes, parent’s rights, services available in the community, etc.)
  • Concurrent enrollment at community college

For additional information about required, authorized, and unauthorized uses of Title III funds, refer to the Title III Authorized Use Scenarios web page.

Title III, Part A Immigrant Student Program

Title III Immigrant Student Program funds are to be specifically targeted to eligible immigrant students and their families through the provision of supplementary programs and services for the underlying purpose of assuring that these students meet the same challenging grade level and graduation standards as mainstream students. Title III, Part A Immigrant Student Program funding is used for enhanced instructional opportunities to immigrant students and their families.

The term "eligible immigrant student" is defined as an individual student who (a) is aged three through twenty-one; (b) was not born in any state (each of the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico); and (c) has not been attending any one or more schools in the United States for more than three full school years (20 U.S.C. Section 7011[5]).

Federal law requires the states to only provide subgrants of sufficient size and scope, and that have experienced a significant increase in eligible immigrant student enrollment in the current year compared with the average of the two preceding fiscal years (20 U.S.C. Section 6824).

LEAs may choose from authorized activities described in ESSA Section 3115 (e)(1)(A)-(G).

Some other additional authorized activities to use Title III, Part A Immigrant Student Program funding include:

  • Immigrant classes for newly identified immigrant students to help acclimate to the American education system and culture
  • Mental health and counseling services for immigrant students
  • Recruit and hiring member(s) of the immigrant community to provide support to immigrant students as well as provide trainings to teachers and staff about the immigrant culture and practices
  • Professional development and workshops for immigrant parents and families (e.g. English classes, introduction to American school system, parent’s rights, services available in the community, etc.)

For additional information about authorized and unauthorized uses of Title III funds, refer to the Title III Authorized Use Scenarios web page.

Title IV, Part A

The purpose of Title IV, Part A funds is to improve students’ academic achievement by increasing the capacity of states, LEAs, schools, and local communities to:

  1. improve access to and opportunities for a well-rounded education for all students;
  2. improve school conditions for student learning in order to create a healthy and safe school environment; and
  3. improve access to personalized learning experiences supported by technology and professional development for the effective use of data and technology.
A list of ways to use the Title IV, Part A funding is available under the “Activities” tab on the Title IV, Part A: Student Support and Academic Enrichment web page.
Other Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief (ESSER I) Fund – The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security (CARES) Act provides funding to LEAs through the ESSER I Fund to address the impact of COVID-19 on elementary and secondary schools. A list of ways to use the ESSER I Fund is available on the ESSER I Funding web page.
Questions:   Language Policy & Leadership Office | 916-319-0845
Last Reviewed: Friday, February 24, 2023
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