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Truancy

Information and resources that define truancy and truancy penalties and other related information.

Definition of a Truant | Reasons for Excused Absences | Definition of a Chronic Truant | First Notification Mandate | Habitual Truant Mandate | Interventions | Referral to School Attendance Review Board | Penalties (Student) | California Education Code Penalties (Parent) | California Penal Code Penalties (Parent) | Certification of District Supervisors of Attendance | Investigation of School Attendance Complaints | Criminal Complaints against Parents | Filing and Prosecution of Complaints by Attendance Supervisors | Challenging the Content of an Inaccurate Record of Truancy | Truancy Rate | Publications

Definition of a Truant

The California Legislature defined a truant in very precise language. In summary, it states that a student missing more than 30 minutes of instruction without an excuse three times during the school year must be classified as a truant and reported to the proper school authority. This classification and referral helps emphasize the importance of school attendance and is intended to help minimize interference with instruction. Effective January 1, 2013, the law was amended to authorize school administrators to excuse school absences due to the pupil’s circumstances, even if the excuse is not one of the valid excuses listed in the California Education Code (EC) or the uniform standards established by the governing board of the district. The EC section that defines a truant reads as follows:

EC Section 48260:

(a) A pupil subject to compulsory full-time education or to compulsory continuation education who is absent from school without a valid excuse three full days in one school year or tardy or absent for more than a 30-minute period during the school day without a valid excuse on three occasions in one school year, or any combination thereof, shall be classified as a truant and shall be reported to the attendance supervisor or to the superintendent of the school district.

(b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), it is the intent of the Legislature that school districts shall not change the method of attendance accounting provided for in existing law and shall not be required to employ period-by-period attendance accounting.

(c) For purposes of this article, a valid excuse includes, but is not limited to, the reasons for which a pupil shall be excused from school pursuant to Sections 48205 and 48225.5 and may include other reasons that are within the discretion of school administrators and, based on the facts of the pupil's circumstances, are deemed to constitute a valid excuse.

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 432, Sec. 1. (AB 2616) Effective January 1, 2013.)

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Reasons for Excused Absences

EC Section 48205:

(a) Notwithstanding Section 48200, a pupil shall be excused from school when the absence is:

(1) Due to the pupil’s illness, including an absence for the benefit of the pupil’s mental or behavioral health. The state board shall update its illness verification regulations, as necessary, to account for including a pupil’s absence for the benefit of the pupil’s mental or behavioral health within the scope of this paragraph.

(2) Due to quarantine under the direction of a county or city health officer.

(3) For the purpose of having medical, dental, optometrical, or chiropractic services rendered.

(4) For the purpose of attending the funeral services of a member of the pupil’s immediate family, so long as the absence is not more than one day if the service is conducted in California and not more than three days if the service is conducted outside California.

(5) For the purpose of jury duty in the manner provided for by law.

(6) Due to the illness or medical appointment during school hours of a child of whom the pupil is the custodial parent, including absences to care for a sick child, for which the school shall not require a note from a doctor.

(7) For justifiable personal reasons, including, but not limited to, an appearance in court, attendance at a funeral service, observance of a holiday or ceremony of the pupil’s religion, attendance at a religious retreat, attendance at an employment conference, or attendance at an educational conference on the legislative or judicial process offered by a nonprofit organization, when the pupil’s absence is requested in writing by the parent or guardian and approved by the principal or a designated representative pursuant to uniform standards established by the governing board of the school district.

(8) For the purpose of serving as a member of a precinct board for an election pursuant to Section 12302 of the Elections Code.

(9) For the purpose of spending time with a member of the pupil’s immediate family who is an active duty member of the uniformed services, as defined in Section 49701, and has been called to duty for, is on leave from, or has immediately returned from, deployment to a combat zone or combat support position. Absences granted pursuant to this paragraph shall be granted for a period of time to be determined at the discretion of the superintendent of the school district.

(10) For the purpose of attending the pupil’s naturalization ceremony to become a United States citizen.

(11) For the purpose of participating in a cultural ceremony or event.

(12) Authorized at the discretion of a school administrator, as described in subdivision (c) of Section 48260.

(b) A pupil absent from school under this section shall be allowed to complete all assignments and tests missed during the absence that can be reasonably provided and, upon satisfactory completion within a reasonable period of time, shall be given full credit therefor. The teacher of the class from which a pupil is absent shall determine which tests and assignments shall be reasonably equivalent to, but not necessarily identical to, the tests and assignments that the pupil missed during the absence.

(c) For purposes of this section, attendance at religious retreats shall not exceed four hours per semester.

(d) Absences pursuant to this section are deemed to be absences in computing average daily attendance and shall not generate state apportionment payments.

(e) For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) “Cultural” means relating to the habits, practices, beliefs, and traditions of a certain group of people.

(2) “Immediate family” means the parent or guardian, brother or sister, grandparent, or any other relative living in the household of the pupil.

(Amended by Stats. 2021, Ch. 672, Sec. 1.5. (SB 14) Effective October 8, 2021. Operative January 1, 2022, pursuant to Sec. 3 of Stats. 2021, Ch. 672.)

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Definition of a Chronic Truant

EC Section 48263.6:

Any pupil subject to compulsory full-time education or to compulsory continuation education who is absent from school without a valid excuse for 10 percent or more of the schooldays in one school year, from the date of enrollment to the current date, is deemed a chronic truant, provided that the appropriate school district officer or employee has complied with Sections 48260, 48260.5, 48261, 48262, 48263, and 48291.

(Added by Stats. 2010, Ch. 647, Sec. 1. (SB 1317) Effective January 1, 2011.)

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First Notification Mandate

In addition to the reporting requirement, the law states that the school district must notify the parent or guardian of the truant by the most cost-effective method possible, and that the notification must include specific information related to the student's unexcused absences. The EC Section regarding notification reads as follows:

EC Section 48260.5:

Upon a pupil's initial classification as a truant, the school district shall notify the pupil's parent or guardian, by using the most cost-effective method possible, which may include electronic mail or a telephone call:

(a) That the pupil is a truant.

(b) That the parent or guardian is obligated to compel the attendance of the pupil at school.

(c) That parents or guardians who fail to meet this obligation may be guilty of an infraction and subject to prosecution pursuant to Article 6 (commencing with Section 48290) of Chapter 2 of Part 27.

(d) That alternative educational programs are available in the district.

(e) That the parent or guardian has the right to meet with appropriate school personnel to discuss solutions to the pupil's truancy.

(f) That the pupil may be subject to prosecution under Section 48264.

(g) For a pupil under 18 years of age but 13 years of age or older, that the pupil may be subject to suspension, restriction, or delay of the pupil’s driving privilege pursuant to Section 13202.7 of the Vehicle Code.

(h) That it is recommended the parent or guardian accompany the pupil to school and attend classes with the pupil for one day.

(Amended by Stats. 2018, Ch. 507, Sec. 8. (SB 816) Effective January 1, 2019.)

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Habitual Truant Mandate

The law further requires that after a student has been reported as a truant three or more times in one school year and after an appropriate school employee has made a conscientious effort to hold at least one meeting with the parent and the student, the student is deemed a habitual truant. The intent is to provide solutions for students who failed to respond to the normal avenues of school intervention, and the most cost-effective method possible should be used to notify the parent or guardian about the meeting at the school. The EC Section outlining habitual truancy reads as follows:

EC Section 48262:

Any pupil is deemed an habitual truant who has been reported as a truant three or more times per school year, provided that no pupil shall be deemed an habitual truant unless an appropriate district officer or employee has made a conscientious effort to hold at least one conference with a parent or guardian of the pupil and the pupil himself, after the filing of either of the reports required by Section 48260 or Section 48261. For the purposes of this section, a conscientious effort means attempting to communicate with the parents of the pupil at least once using the most cost-effective method possible, which may include electronic mail or a telephone call.

(Amended by Stats. 2010, Ch. 724, Sec. 22. (AB 1610) Effective October 19, 2010.)

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Interventions

When a student is a habitual truant, or is irregular in attendance at school, or is habitually insubordinate or disorderly during school, the student may be referred to a school attendance review board (SARB) or to the county probation department pursuant to EC Section 48263. The student may also be referred to a probation officer or district attorney mediation program pursuant to EC Section 48263.5. The intent of these laws is to provide intensive guidance to meet the special needs of students with school attendance problems or school behavior problems pursuant to EC Section 48320. These interventions are designed to divert students with serious attendance and behavioral problems from the juvenile justice system and to reduce the number of students who drop out of school.

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Referral to School Attendance Review Board

EC Section 48263:

(a) If a minor pupil in a school district of a county is a habitual truant, or is a chronic absentee, as defined in Section 60901, or is habitually insubordinate or disorderly during attendance at school, the pupil may be referred to a school attendance review board, or to the probation department for services if the probation department has elected to receive these referrals. The school district supervisor of attendance, or any other persons the governing board of the school district or county may designate, making the referral shall provide documentation of the interventions undertaken at the school to the pupil, the pupil’s parents or guardians, and the school attendance review board or probation department and shall notify the pupil and parents or guardians of the pupil, in writing, of the name and address of the school attendance review board or probation department to which the matter has been referred and of the reason for the referral. The notice shall indicate that the pupil and parents or guardians of the pupil will be required, along with the referring person, to meet with the school attendance review board or probation officer to consider a proper disposition of the referral.

(b) (1) If the school attendance review board or probation officer determines that available community services can resolve the problem of the truant or insubordinate pupil, then the school attendance review board or probation officer shall direct the pupil or the pupil’s parents or guardians, or both, to make use of those community services. The school attendance review board or probation officer may require, at any time that it determines proper, the pupil or parents or guardians of the pupil, or both, to furnish satisfactory evidence of participation in the available community services.

(2) If the school attendance review board or probation officer determines that available community services cannot resolve the problem of the truant or insubordinate pupil or if the pupil or the parents or guardians of the pupil, or both, have failed to respond to directives of the school attendance review board or probation officer or to services provided, the school attendance review board may, pursuant to Section 48263.5, notify the district attorney or the probation officer, or both, of the county in which the school district is located, or the probation officer may, pursuant to Section 48263.5, notify the district attorney, if the district attorney or the probation officer has elected to participate in the truancy mediation program described in that section.

(c) In any county that has not established a school attendance review board, if the school district determines that available community resources cannot resolve the problem of the truant or insubordinate pupil, or if the pupil or the pupil’s parents or guardians, or both, have failed to respond to the directives of the school district or the services provided, the school district, pursuant to Section 48260.6, may notify the district attorney or the probation officer, or both, of the county in which the school district is located, if the district attorney or the probation officer has elected to participate in the truancy mediation program described in Section 48260.6.

(Amended by Stats. 2020, Ch. 323, Sec. 2. (AB 901) Effective January 1, 2021.)

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Penalties (Student)

The law provides schools and school districts with discretion regarding student penalties for truancy as long as they are consistent with state law. The penalties for truancy for students defined in EC Section 48264.5 become progressively severe from the first the time a truancy report is required through the fourth time a truancy report is required. The EC Section regarding penalties for students who are truant reads as follows:

EC Section 48264.5:

A minor who is classified as a truant pursuant to Section 48260 or 48261 may be required to attend makeup classes conducted on one day of a weekend pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section 37223 and is subject to the following:

(a) The first time a truancy report is issued, the pupil and, as appropriate, the parent or legal guardian, may be requested to attend a meeting with a school counselor or other school designee to discuss the root causes of the attendance issue and develop a joint plan to improve the pupil’s attendance.

(b) The second time a truancy report is issued within the same school year, the pupil may be given a written warning by a peace officer as specified in Section 830.1 of the Penal Code. A record of the written warning may be kept at the school for not less than two years or until the pupil graduates or transfers from that school. If the pupil transfers from that school, the record may be forwarded to the school receiving the pupil’s school records. A record of the written warning may be maintained by the law enforcement agency in accordance with that law enforcement agency’s policies and procedures. The pupil may also be assigned by the school to an afterschool or weekend study program located within the same county as the pupil’s school. If the pupil fails to successfully complete the assigned study program, the pupil shall be subject to subdivision (c).

(c) The third time a truancy report is issued within the same school year, the pupil shall be classified as a habitual truant, as defined in Section 48262, and may be referred to, and required to attend, an attendance review board or a truancy mediation program pursuant to Section 48263 or pursuant to Section 601.3 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. If the school district does not have a truancy mediation program, the pupil may be required to attend a comparable program deemed acceptable by the school district’s attendance supervisor. If the pupil does not successfully complete the truancy mediation program or other similar program, the pupil shall be subject to subdivision (d).

(d) The fourth time a truancy is issued within the same school year, the pupil may be within the jurisdiction of the juvenile court that may adjudge the pupil to be a ward of the court pursuant to Section 601 of the Welfare and Institutions Code. If the pupil is adjudged a ward of the court, the pupil shall be required to do one or more of the following:

(1) Performance at court-approved community services sponsored by either a public or private nonprofit agency for not less than 20 hours but not more than 40 hours over a period not to exceed 90 days, during a time other than the pupil’s hours of school attendance or employment. The probation officer shall report to the court the failure of the pupil to comply with this paragraph.

(2) Payment of a fine by the pupil of not more than fifty dollars ($50) for which a parent or legal guardian of the pupil may be jointly liable. The fine described in this paragraph shall not be subject to the assessments of Section 1464 of the Penal Code or any other applicable section.

(3) Attendance of a court-approved truancy prevention program.

(4) Suspension or revocation of driving privileges pursuant to Section 13202.7 of the Vehicle Code. This subdivision shall apply only to a pupil who has attended a school attendance review board program, a program operated by a probation department acting as a school attendance review board, or a truancy mediation program pursuant to subdivision (c).

(Amended by Stats. 2012, Ch. 432, Sec. 2. (AB 2616) Effective January 1, 2013.)

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California Education Code Penalties (Parent)

Penalties against parents apply when any parent, guardian, or other person having control or charge of any student fails to compel the student to attend school. The penalties against parents in EC Section 48293 (a) become progressively severe with a second and third conviction. The EC Section regarding penalties for parents of a truant reads as follows:

EC Section 48293:

(a) Any parent, guardian, or other person having control or charge of any pupil who fails to comply with this chapter, unless excused or exempted therefrom, is guilty of an infraction and shall be punished as follows:

(1) Upon a first conviction, by a fine of not more than one hundred dollars ($100).

(2) Upon a second conviction, by a fine of not more than two hundred fifty dollars ($250).

(3) Upon a third or subsequent conviction, if the person has willfully refused to comply with this section, by a fine of not more than five hundred dollars ($500). In lieu of imposing the fines prescribed in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), the court may order the person to be placed in a parent education and counseling program.

(b) A judgment that a person convicted of an infraction be punished as prescribed in subdivision (a) may also provide for the payment of the fine within a specified time or in specified installments, or for participation in the program. A judgment granting a defendant time to pay the fine or prescribing the days of attendance in a program shall order that if the defendant fails to pay the fine, or any installment thereof, on the date that it is due, or fails to attend a program on a prescribed date, he or she shall appear in court on that date for further proceedings. Willful violation of the order is punishable as contempt.

(c) The court may also order that the person convicted of the violation of subdivision (a) immediately enroll or reenroll the pupil in the appropriate school or educational program and provide proof of enrollment to the court. Willful violation of an order under this subdivision is punishable as civil contempt with a fine of up to one thousand dollars ($1,000). An order of contempt under this subdivision shall not include imprisonment.

(Amended by Stats. 2006, Ch. 273, Sec. 1. Effective September 14, 2006.)

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California Penal Code Penalties (Parent)

In addition to the EC penalties for parents in Section 48293, Penal Code Section 270.1 is effective January 1, 2011 and provides penalties for a parent or guardian of a pupil of six years of age or more who is in kindergarten or any of the grades from one to eight:

Penal Code Section 270.1:

(a) A parent or guardian of a pupil of six years of age or more who is in kindergarten or any of grades 1 to 8, inclusive, and who is subject to compulsory full-time education or compulsory continuation education, whose child is a chronic truant as defined in Section 48263.6 of the Education Code, who has failed to reasonably supervise and encourage the pupil’s school attendance, and who has been offered language accessible support services to address the pupil’s truancy, is guilty of a misdemeanor punishable by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars ($2,000), or by imprisonment in a county jail not exceeding one year, or by both that fine and imprisonment. A parent or guardian guilty of a misdemeanor under this subdivision may participate in the deferred entry of judgment program defined in subdivision (b).

(b) A superior court may establish a deferred entry of judgment program that includes the components listed in paragraphs (1) to (7), inclusive, to adjudicate cases involving parents or guardians of elementary school pupils who are chronic truants as defined in Section 48263.6 of the Education Code:

(1) A dedicated court calendar.

(2) Leadership by a judge of the superior court in that county.

(3) Meetings, scheduled and held periodically, with school district representatives designated by the chronic truant's school district of enrollment. Those representatives may include school psychologists, school counselors, teachers, school administrators, or other educational service providers deemed appropriate by the school district.

(4) Service referrals for parents or guardians, as appropriate to each case that may include, but are not limited to, all of the following:

(A) Case management.

(B) Mental and physical health services.

(C) Parenting classes and support.

(D) Substance abuse treatment.

(E) Child care and housing.

(5) A clear statement that, in lieu of trial, the court may grant deferred entry of judgment with respect to the current crime or crimes charged if the defendant pleads guilty to each charge and waives time for the pronouncement of judgment and that, upon the defendant's compliance with the terms and conditions set forth by the court and agreed to by the defendant upon the entry of his or her plea, and upon the motion of the prosecuting attorney, the court will dismiss the charge or charges against the defendant and the same procedures specified for successful completion of a drug diversion program or a deferred entry of judgment program pursuant to Section 851.90 and the provisions of Section 1203.4 shall apply.

(6) A clear statement that failure to comply with any condition under the program may result in the prosecuting attorney or the court making a motion for entry of judgment, whereupon the court will render a finding of guilty to the charge or charges pled, enter judgment, and schedule a sentencing hearing as otherwise provided in this code.

(7) An explanation of criminal record retention and disposition resulting from participation in the deferred entry of judgment program and the defendant's rights relative to answering questions about his or her arrest and deferred entry of judgment following successful completion of the program.
(c) Funding for the deferred entry of judgment program pursuant to this section shall be derived solely from non-state sources.

(d) A parent or guardian of an elementary school pupil who is a chronic truant, as defined in Section 48263.6 of the Education Code, may not be punished for a violation of both this section and the provisions of Section 272 that involve criminal liability for parents and guardians of truant children.

(e) If any district attorney chooses to charge a defendant with a violation of subdivision (a) and the defendant is found by the prosecuting attorney to be eligible or ineligible for deferred entry of judgment, the prosecuting attorney shall file with the court a declaration in writing, or state for the record, the grounds upon which that determination is based.

(Added by Stats. 2010, Ch. 647, Sec. 2. (SB 1317) Effective January 1, 2011.)

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Certification of District Supervisors of Attendance

EC Section 48245:

In any district or districts with an average daily attendance of 1,000 or more school children, according to the annual school report of the last preceding school year, no district supervisor of attendance shall be appointed, unless he has been lawfully certificated for the work by the county board of education.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

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Investigation of School Attendance Complaints

EC Section 48290:

The governing board of any school district, shall, on the complaint of any person, make full and impartial investigation of all charges against any parent, guardian, or other person having control or charge of any child, for violation of any of the provisions of this chapter.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

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Criminal Complaints against Parents

EC Section 48291:

If it appears upon investigation that any parent, guardian, or other person having control or charge of any child has violated any of the provisions of this chapter, the secretary of the board of education, except as provided in Section 48292, or the clerk of the board of trustees, shall refer such person to a school attendance review board. In the event that any such parent, guardian, or other person continually and willfully fails to respond to directives of the school attendance review board or services provided, the school attendance review board shall direct the school district to make and file in the proper court a criminal complaint against the parent, guardian, or other person, charging the violation, and shall see that the charge is prosecuted by the proper authority. In the event that a criminal complaint is not prosecuted by the proper authority as recommended, the official making the determination not to prosecute shall provide the school attendance review board with a written explanation for the decision not to prosecute.

(Amended by Stats. 1980, Ch. 1329, Sec. 7.)

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Filing and Prosecution of Complaints by Attendance Supervisors

EC Section 48292:

In counties, cities, and cities and counties, and in school districts having an attendance supervisor, the attendance supervisor shall make and file the complaint provided for by this article and shall see that the charge is prosecuted by the proper authorities.

(Enacted by Stats. 1976, Ch. 1010.)

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Challenging the Content of an Inaccurate Record of Truancy

EC Section 49070:

Following an inspection and review of a pupil’s records, the parent or guardian of a pupil or former pupil of a school district may challenge the content of any pupil record.

(a) The parent or guardian of a pupil may file a written request with the superintendent of the school district to correct or remove any information recorded in the pupil’s written records that the parent or guardian alleges to be any of the following:

(1) Inaccurate.

(2) An unsubstantiated personal conclusion or inference.

(3) A conclusion or inference outside of the observer’s area of competence.

(4) Not based on the personal observation of a named person with the time and place of the observation noted.

(5) Misleading.

(6) In violation of the privacy or other rights of the pupil.

(b) (1) Within 30 days of receipt of a request pursuant to subdivision (a), the superintendent or the superintendent’s designee shall meet with the parent or guardian and the certificated employee who recorded the information in question, if any, and if the employee is presently employed by the school district. The superintendent shall then sustain or deny the allegations.

(2) If the superintendent sustains any or all of the allegations, the superintendent shall order the correction or the removal and destruction of the information. However, in accordance with Section 49066, the superintendent shall not order a pupil’s grade to be changed unless the teacher who determined the grade is, to the extent practicable, given an opportunity to state orally, in writing, or both, the reasons for which the grade was given and is, to the extent practicable, included in all discussions relating to the changing of the grade.

(3) If the superintendent denies any or all of the allegations and refuses to order the correction or the removal of the information, the parent or guardian may, within 30 days of the refusal, appeal the decision in writing to the governing board of the school district.

(c) (1) Within 30 days of receipt of an appeal pursuant to subdivision (b), the governing board shall, in closed session with the parent or guardian and the certificated employee who recorded the information in question, if any, and if the employee is presently employed by the school district, determine whether or not to sustain or deny the allegations.

(2) If the governing board sustains any or all of the allegations, it shall order the superintendent to immediately correct or remove and destroy the information from the written records of the pupil, and inform the parent or guardian in writing. However, in accordance with Section 49066, the governing board shall not order a pupil’s grade to be changed unless the teacher who determined the grade is, to the extent practicable, given an opportunity to state orally, in writing, or both, the reasons for which the grade was given and is, to the extent practicable, included in all discussions relating to the changing of the grade.

(3) The decision of the governing board shall be final.

(4) Records of these administrative proceedings shall be maintained in a confidential manner and shall be destroyed one year after the decision of the governing board, unless the parent or guardian initiates legal proceedings relative to the disputed information within the prescribed period.

(5) (A) If the superintendent or governing board of the school district sustains the parent’s or guardian’s request to change the name, gender, or both, of a pupil or former pupil, the school district shall add a new document to the pupil’s or former pupil’s record that includes all of the following information:

(i) The date of the request.

(ii) The date the requested records were corrected.

(iii) A list of the records that the parent or guardian of the pupil or former pupil requested to be corrected.

(iv) The type of documentation, if any, provided by the parent or guardian of the pupil or former pupil to demonstrate a legal change to the pupil’s or former pupil’s name, gender, or both. The parent or guardian of the pupil or former pupil is not required to provide documentation of a legal change to the pupil’s or former pupil’s name, gender, or both.

(v) The name of the employee that completed the request.

(vi) The corrected and former names, genders, or both, of the pupil or former pupil.

(B) Notwithstanding paragraph (4), the document generated pursuant to subparagraph (A) regarding a parent’s or guardian’s request to change a pupil’s or former pupil’s name, gender, or both, shall be indefinitely maintained in a confidential manner.

(d) If the final decision of the governing board is unfavorable to the parent or guardian, or if the parent or guardian accepts an unfavorable decision by the superintendent of the school district, the parent or guardian shall be informed and shall have the right to submit a written statement of the parent’s or guardian’s objections to the information. This statement shall become a part of the pupil’s school record until the information objected to is corrected or removed.

(Amended by Stats. 2019, Ch. 179, Sec. 2. (AB 711) Effective January 1, 2020.)

Truancy Rate

The truancy rate of a school is determined by the number of students in a school who are classified as truants pursuant to EC Section 48260 during the school year compared to the cumulative enrollment of the school.

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Publications

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Questions: David Kopperud | dkopperud@cde.ca.gov | 916-323-1028 
Last Reviewed: Thursday, October 28, 2021