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References

Each of the ten QSF elements includes a set of current, valuable resources to help all schools improve. Find tools, practices and programs in the Resources section within each of the ten QSF elements that support students learning and thriving.

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Applying the QSF

(1) McLaughlin, Milbrey W. 1987. "Learning From Experience: Lessons From Policy Implementation." Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, vol. 9 no. 2: 171–178.

(2) Damschroder, Laura J., David C. Aron, Rosalind E. Keith, Susan R. Kirsh, Jeffery A. Alexander, and Julie C. Lowery. 2009. "Fostering Implementation of Health Services Research Findings Into Practice: A Consolidated Framework for Advancing Implementation Science." Implementation Science, vol. 4: 50.

(3) Fixsen, Dean L., Sandra F. Naoom, Karen A. Blase, Robert M. Friedman, and Frances Wallace. 2005. Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, Louis de la Parte Florida Mental Health Institute, The National Implementation Research Network (FMHI Publication No. 231).

(4) Deetz, Stanley A., Sarah J. Tracy, and Jennifer L. Simpson. 1999. Leading Organizations Through Transition: Communication and Cultural Change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

(5) Locke, Edwin A., and Gary P. Latham. 2006. "New Directions in Goal-Setting Theory." Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 15 no. 5: 265–268.

(6) Williams-Taylor, Lisa. 2007. "Evidence-Based Programs and Practices: What Does It All Mean?" Research Review. Children Services Council of Palm Beach County: Boynton Beach, FL.

(7) Knudson, Joel, Stephanie Hannan, and Jennifer O’Day. 2012. "Learning from the Past: Drawing on California’s CLAS Experience to Inform Assessment of the Common Core." California Collaborative on District Reform. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.

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Assessment

Definition References

(1) California Department of Education. 2013. Recommendations for Transitioning California to a Future Assessment System: A Report by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(2) Popham, W. James. 2004. "All About Accountability / Why Assessment Illiteracy is Professional Suicide." Educational Leadership, vol. 62 no. 1: 82–83.

(3) Knudson, Joel, Stephanie Hannan, and Jennifer O’Day. 2012. "Learning from the Past: Drawing on California’s CLAS Experience to Inform Assessment of the Common Core." California Collaborative on District Reform. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.

(4) Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium External link opens in new window or tab.. 2014. Latest News (accessed July 18, 2013).

Importance References

(1) Pellegrino, James W., Naomi Chudowsky, and Robert Glaser. 2001. Knowing what Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

(2) Black, Paul, and Dylan Wiliam. 1998. "Inside the Black Box: Raising Standards Through Classroom Assessment." Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 80 no. 2: 139–148.

Characteristics References

(1) Pellegrino, James W., Naomi Chudowsky, and Robert Glaser. 2001. Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

(2) Hess, Karin, Mike Burdge, and Jean Clayton. 2011. "Challenges to Developing and Implementing Alternate Assessments Based on Alternate Achievement Standards (AA-AAS)", 171–213. In Russell, Michael and Maureen Kavanaugh. Assessing Students in the Margins: Challenges, Strategies, and Techniques. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing.

(3) California Department of Education. 2013. Recommendations for Transitioning California to a Future Assessment System: A Report by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

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Culture and Climate

Definition References

(1) Education Week. 2013. Schools Aim to Craft Environment for Learning External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed August 6, 2014).

(2) Voight, Adam, Gregory Austin, and Thomas Hanson. 2013.  A Climate for Academic Success: How School Climate Distinguishes Schools that Are Beating the Achievement Odds. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

Ruiz de Velasco, Jorge, Greg Austin, Don Dixon, Joseph Johnson, Milbrey McLaughlin, and Lynne Perez. 2008. Alternative Education Options: A Descriptive Study of California Continuation High Schools. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

Importance References

(1) Hanson, Thomas, Greg Austin, and Hong Zheng. 2011. The Relationship of Academic Achievement and School Well-Being. (California Healthy Students Research Project, Being Well Learning Well Issue Brief No. 1 in a Series). San Francisco, CA: WestEd and University of California, San Francisco.

(2) Hanson, Thomas. 2011. Teacher Support: High Expectations and Caring Relationships. S3 Factsheet #1. Los Alamitos, CA: WestEd.

O'Malley, Meagan D., and Thomas Hanson. 2012. School Climate and Academic Performance Across California High Schools. S3 Factsheet #3. Los Alamitos, CA: WestEd.

(3) Gottfredson, Gary D., Denise C. Gottsfredson, Allison Ann Payne, and Nisha C. Gottfredson. 2005. "School Climate Predictors of School Disorder: Results from National Study of Delinquency Prevention in Schools." Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, vol. 42 no. 4: 421–444.

Patton, George C., Lyndal Bond, John B. Carlin, Lyndal Thomas, Helen Butler, Sara Glover, Richard Catalano, and Glenn Bowes. 2006. "Promoting Social Inclusion in Schools: A Group-Randomized Trial of Effects on Student Health Risk Behavior and Well-Being." American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96 no. 9: 1582–1587.

Resnick, Michael D., Peter S. Bearman, Robert Wm. Blum, Karl E. Bauman, Kathleen M. Harris, Jo Jones, Jyce Tabor, Trish Beuhring, Reneed E. Sieving, Marcia Shew, Marjorie Ireland, Linda H. Bearinger, and J. Richard Idry. 1997. "Protecting Adolescents From Harm: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health." Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 278 no. 10: 823–832.

Way, Niobe, Ranjini Reddy, and Jean Rhodes. 2007. "Students’ Perceptions of School Climate During the Middle School Years: Associations with Trajectories of Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment." American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 40 no. 3–4: 194–213.

(4) Eccles, Jacquelynne S., Carol Midgley, Allan Wigfield, Christy Miller Buchanan, David Reuman, Constance Flanagan, and Douglas MacIver. 1993. "Development During Adolescence: The Impact of Stage-Environment Fit on Young Adolescents’ Experiences in Schools and in Families." American Psychologist, vol. 48 no. 2: 90–101.

Libbey, Heather P. 2004. "Measuring Student Relationships to School: Attachment, Bonding, Connectedness, and Engagement." Journal of School Health, vol. 74 no. 7: 274–283.

(5) Way, Niobe, Ranjini Reddy, and Jean Rhodes. 2007. "Students’ Perceptions of School Climate During the Middle School Years: Associations with Trajectories of Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment." American Journal of Community Psychology, vol. 40 no. 3–4: 194–213.

(6) American Institutes for Research. 2007. School Climate and Connectedness and Student Achievement. AIR Technical Report to the Association of Alaska School Boards, September 8, 2007). Juneau, AK: Association of Alaska School Boards'.

Brand, Stephen, Robert Felner, Minsuk Shim, Anne Seitsinger, and Thaddeus Dumas. 2003. "Middle School Improvement and Reform: Development and Validation of a School-Level Assessment of Climate, Cultural Pluralism, and School Safety." Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 95 no. 3: 570–588.

Fleming, Charles B., Kevin P. Haggerty, Richard F. Catalano, Tracy W. Harachi, James J. Mazza, and Diana H. Gruman. 2005. "Do Social and Behavioral Characteristics Targeted by Preventive Interventions Predict Standardized Test Scores and Grades?" Journal of School Health, vol. 75 no. 9: 342–349.

Libbey, Heather P. 2004. "Measuring Student Relationships to School: Attachment, Bonding, Connectedness, and Engagement." Journal of School Health, vol. 74 no. 7: 274–283.

(7) Johnson, Susan Moore, Matthew A. Kraft, and John P. Papay. 2011. "How Context Matters in High-Need Schools, Project on the Next Generation of Teachers." Cambridge, MA: Harvard Graduate School of Education, Project on the Next Generation of Teachers. In Almy, Sarah, and Melissa Tooley. 2012. Building and Sustaining Talent: Creating Conditions in High-Poverty Schools That Support Effective Teaching and Learning. Washington, DC: The Education Trust.

6. Analysis of data from the U.S. Department of Education’s 2007-08 Schools and Staffing Survey.

Characteristics References

(1) Learning First Alliance. 2001. Every Child Learning: Safe and Supportive Schools. Washington, DC: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Resnick, Michael D., Peter S. Bearman, Robert Wm. Blum, Karl E. Bauman, Kathleen M. Harris, Jo Jones, Jyce Tabor, Trish Beuhring, Reneed E. Sieving, Marcia Shew, Marjorie Ireland, Linda H. Bearinger, and J. Richard Idry. 1997. "Protecting Adolescents From Harm: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health." Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 278 no. 10: 823–832.

(2) Voight, Adam. 2013. The Racial School-Climate Gap. A report from the Region IX Equity Assistance Center at WestEd. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

(3) Chang, Janet, and Thao N. Le. 2010. "Multiculturalism as a Dimension of School Climate: The Impact on the Academic Achievement of Asian American and Hispanic Youth." Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, vol. 16 no. 4: 485–492.

California P-16 Council. 2008. Closing the Achievement Gap: Report of Superintendent Jack O’Connell’s California P-16 Council. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

Cohen, Jonathan, Libby McCabe, Nicholas M. Michelli, and Terry Pickeral. 2009. "School Climate: Research Policy, Practice, and Teacher Education." Teachers College Record, vol. 111 no. 1: 180–213.

O’Malley, Meagan. D., and Katie Eklund. 2012. "Promoting Safe and Healthy Schools." In Brock, Stephen E., and Shane R. Jimerson (Eds.), Best Practices in Crisis Prevention and Intervention in the Schools, 151–176. Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

(4) Austin, Gregory, Meagan D. O’Malley, and J. Izu. 2011. Making Sense of School Climate: Using the California School Climate, Health, and Learning Survey System (Cal-CHLS) to Inform Your School Improvement Efforts. Los Alamitos, CA: WestEd.

Benard, Bonnie. 2004. Resiliency: What We Have Learned. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

(5) Shindler, John, Albert Jones, A Dee Williams, Clint Taylor, and Hermenia Cadenas. 2009. Exploring Below the Surface: School Climate Assessment and Improvement as the Key to Bridging the Achievement Gap. Los Angeles, CA: Alliance for the Study of School Climate, California State University, Los Angeles.

(6) Hanson, Thomas. 2011. Teacher Support: High Expectations and Caring Relationships. S3 Factsheet #1. Los Alamitos, CA: WestEd.

(7) Ibid.

(8) Portin, Bradley S., Michael S. Knapp, Scott Dareff, Sue Feldman, Felice A. Russell, Catherine Samuelson, C., and Theresa Ling Yeh. 2009. Leadership for Learning Improvement in Urban Schools. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. The Wallace Foundation.

(9) National Research Council. 2003. Engaging Schools: Fostering High School Students’ Motivation to Learn. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

(10) Ibid.

(11) Ibid.

(12) Hanson, Thomas L., Gregory Austin, and June Lee-Bayha. 2004. Ensuring That No Child Is Left Behind: How Are Student Health Risks and Resilience Related to the Academic Progress of Schools? San Francisco, CA: Health and Human Development Program, WestEd.

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Curriculum

Definition References

(1) National Research Council. 2012. Education for Life and Work: Developing Transferable Knowledge and Skills in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

(2) California Legislative Information. 2014. California Education Code Section 60603 (d) and (e) External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed April 11, 2014).

(3) California State Board of Education. 2013. SBE Agenda for November 2013, Item 3, Attachment 3 (accessed April 11, 2014).

(4) National Center on Universal Design for Learning. 2013. UDL and the Curriculum. What is meant by the term curriculum? External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed April 11, 2014).

(5) California Department of Education. 2013. Content Standards (accessed April 11, 2014).

California Department of Education. 2013. Next Generation Science Standards (accessed April 11, 2014).

(6) California Legislative Information. 2014. California Education Code Section 60010(c) External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed April 11, 2014).

(7) California Department of Education. 2014. All Curriculum Frameworks (accessed April 11, 2014).

Importance References

(1) California Department of Education. 2013. California Common Core State Standards: Mathematics. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(2) California Department of Education. 2013. California Common Core State Standards: English Language Arts and Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(3) California Department of Education. 2014. English Language Development Standards (accessed July 31, 2014).

(4) California Department of Education. 2014. NGSS for California Public Schools, K-12 (accessed July 31, 2014).

(5) California Department of Education. 2006. Physical Education Model Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(6) California Department of Education. 2009. Health Education Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(7) California Department of Education. 2001. Visual and Performing Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools, Prekindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(8) California Department of Education. 2010. World Language Content Standards for California Public Schools: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(9) California Department of Education. 2006. Physical Education Model Content Standards for California Public Schools, Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(10) Seif, Elliott. 1998. Curriculum Renewal: A Case Study. a Chapter of the ASCD Curriculum Handbook. Alexandria, VA: The University of Virginia, Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Characteristics References

(1) Stiggins, Rick. 2005. "From Formative Assessment to Assessment FOR Learning: A Path to Success in Standards-Based Schools." Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 87 no. 4: 324–328.

(2) California Legislative Information. 2014. California Education Code Section 60603 (i) External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed April 11, 2014).

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Equity

Definition References

(1) The Equity and Excellence Commission. 2013. For Each and Every Child-A Strategy for Education Equity and Excellence. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Importance References

(1) U.S. Department of Education. Ed Data Express: Data about elementary & secondary school in the U.S. Definitions External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed July 18, 2014).

(2) California Department of Education. 2009. A Framework for Closing California's Achievement Gap: Executive Summary (P-16 Council Report).Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(3) Voight, Adam. 2013. The Racial School-Climate Gap. A report from the Region IX Equity Assistance Center at WestEd. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

Characteristics References

(1) Owens-West, R. 2013. "Using Data to Address Equity Issues and Improve Student Academic Outcomes." A presentation to the California Association of African-American Superintendents and Administrator's 2013 California State Conference. Sacramento, CA.

(2) Voight, Adam. 2013. The Racial School-Climate Gap. A Report from the Region IX Equity Assistance Center at WestEd. San Francisco, CA: WestEd.

(3) Rorrer, Andrea K., Linda Skrla, and James Joseph Scheurich. 2008. "Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform." Educational Administration Quarterly, vol. 44 no. 3: 307–357.

(4) Scott, Bradley. Six Goals of Education Equity. San Antonio, TX: Intercultural Development Research Association.

(5) Ibid.

(6) Ragland, Mary A., Rose Asera, and Joseph F. Johnson. 1999. Urgency, Responsibility, Efficacy: Preliminary Findings of A Study of High-Performing Texas School Districts. Austin, TX: The Charles A. Dana Center, The University of Texas at Austin.

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Family & Community

Definition References

(1) Weiss, Heather B., M. Elena Lopez, and Heidi Rosenberg. 2010. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

(2) Kressley, Kate Gill. 2008. "Breaking New Ground: Seeding Proven Practices Into Proven Programs." Paper presented at the National PIRC Conference, Baltimore, MD, August 1, 2008.

(3) Weiss, Heather B., M. Elena Lopez, and Heidi Rosenberg. 2010. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

Importance References

(1) Henderson, Anne T, and Karen L. Mapp. 2002. A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

(2) Bryk, Anthony S., Penny Bender Sebring, Elaine Allensworth, Stuart Luppescu, and John Q. Easton. 2010. Organizing Schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago, IL and London: The University of Chicago Press.

(3) Henderson, Anne T, and Karen L. Mapp. 2002. A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

Weiss, Heather B., M. Elena Lopez, and Heidi Rosenberg. 2010. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

(4) California Department of Education. 2011. Family Engagement Framework: A Tool for California School Districts. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(5) Weiss, Heather B., M. Elena Lopez, and Heidi Rosenberg. 2010. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

(6) Gandara, P. 2011. Bridging Language and Culture. In Redding, Sam, Marilyn Murphy, and Pam Sheley (Eds.). Handbook on Family and Community Engagement (pp. 117–120). Lincoln, IL: Academic Development Institute / Center on Innovation & Improvement.

Weiss, Heather B., Suzanne M. Bouffard, Beatrice L. Bridglall, and Edumnd W. Gordon. 2009. Reframing Family Involvement in Education: Supporting Families to Support Educational Equity. New York, NY: Teachers College, Columbia University.

(7) Gandara, P. 2011. Bridging Language and Culture. In Redding, Sam, Marilyn Murphy, and Pam Sheley (Eds.). Handbook on Family and Community Engagement (pp. 117–120). Lincoln, IL: Academic Development Institute / Center on Innovation & Improvement.

(8) Jeynes, William H. 2013. "A Meta-Analysis of the Efficacy of Different Types of Parental Involvement Programs for Urban Students." Harvard Family Research Project, Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) Newsletter, vol. 5 no. 1.

(9) Epstein, Joyce L., Mavis G. Sanders, Steven Sheldon, Beth S. Simon, Karen Clark Salinas, Natalie R. (Rodriguez) Jansorn, Frances L. Van Voorhis, Cecelia S. Martin, Brenda G. Thomas, Marsha D. Greenfield, Darcy J. Hutchins, and Kenyatta J. Williams. 2009. School, Family and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

(10) Hoover-Dempsey, Kathleen V., and Howard M. Sandler. 1997. "Why Do Parents Become Involved in Their Children’s Education?" Review of Educational Research, vol. 67 no. 1: 3–42.

(11) Henderson, Anne T, and Karen L. Mapp. 2002. A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Family, and Community Connections on Student Achievement. Austin, TX: National Center for Family and Community Connections with Schools, Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

(12) Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 2011/10. "What can parents do to help their children succeed in school?" PISA in Focus.

(13) Hill, Nancy E., and Ruth K. Chao. 2009. Families, Schools, and the Adolescent: Connecting Research, Policy, and Practice. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Characteristics References

(1) Leithwood, Kenneth A., and Carlolyn Riehl. 2003. What We Know about Successful School Leadership. Philadelphia, PA: Laboratory for Student Success, Temple University.

(2) Houtenville, Andrew J., and Karen Smith Conway. 2008. "Parental Effort, School Resources, and Student Achievement." Journal of Human Resources, vol. 43 no. 2: 437–453.

(3) Henderson, Anne T., Karen L. Mapp, Vivian R. Johnson, and Don Davies. 2007. Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships. New York, NY: The New Press.

(4) Bryk, Anthony S., and Barbara Schneider. 2004. Trust in Schools: A Core Resource for Improvement. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation Publications.

(5) Henderson, Anne T., Karen L. Mapp, Vivian R. Johnson, and Don Davies. 2007. Beyond the Bake Sale: The Essential Guide to Family-School Partnerships. New York, NY: The New Press

(6) Patrikakou, E. 2011. Families of Children with Disabilities: Building School-Family Partnerships. In Redding, Sam, Marilyn Murphy, and Pam Sheley (Eds.). Handbook on Family and Community Engagement (pp. 131–134). Lincoln, IL: Academic Development Institute / Center on Innovation & Improvement.

Waterman, Robin, and Beth Harry. 2008. Building Collaboration Between Schools and Parents of English Language Learners: Transcending Barriers, Creating Opportunities (Practitioner Brief). Tempe, AZ: National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems.

(7) Paredes, Maria C. 2010. "Academic Parent-Teacher Teams: Reorganizing Parent-Teacher Conferences Around Data." Harvard Family Research Project, Family Involvement Network of Educators (FINE) Newsletter, vol. 2 no. 3.

Weiss, Heather B., M. Elena Lopez, and Heidi Rosenberg. 2010. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

(8) Weiss, Heather B., M. Elena Lopez, and Heidi Rosenberg. 2010. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

(9) Ibid.

(10) Fruchter, Norm, and Richard Gray. 2006. "Community Engagement: Mobilizing Constituents to Demand and Support Educational Improvement." Voices in Urban Education, vol. 13: 5–13.

(11) Weiss, Heather B., M. Elena Lopez, and Heidi Rosenberg. 2010. Beyond Random Acts: Family, School, and Community Engagement as an Integral Part of Education Reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Family Research Project.

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Instruction

Definition References

(1) Tomlinson, Carol Ann, and Jay McTighe. 2006. Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design: Connected Content and Kids. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

(2) Tomlinson, Carol Ann, and Marcia B. Imbeau. 2010. Leading and Managing a Differentiated Classroom. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

(3) Wiggins, Grant, and Jay McTighe. 2005. Understanding by Design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Importance References

(1) Wenglinsky, Harold. 2002. "How Schools Matter: The Link Between Teacher Classroom Practices and Student Academic Performance." Education Policy Analysis Archives, vol. 10: 12.

(2) Rivkin, Steven G., Eric A. Hanushek, and John F. Kain. 2005. "Variable Definitions, Data, and Programs for Teachers, Students, and Academic Achievement. Econometrica Supplementary Material, vol. 73: 2.

Kane, Thomas J., and Douglas O. Staiger. 2008. Estimating Teacher Impacts on Student Achievement: An Experimental Evaluation (Working Paper 14607). Cambridge, MA: The National Bureau of Economic Research.

(3) Pressley, Michael, Irene W. Gaskins, Katie Solic, and Stephanie Collins. 2006. "A Portrait of Benchmark School: How a School Produces High Achievement in Students Who Previously Failed." Journal of Educational Psychology, vol. 98 no. 2: 282–306.

(4) Kluger, Avraham N., and Angelo DeNisi. 1996. "The Effects of Feedback Interventions on Performance: A Historical Review, Meta-Analysis, and a Preliminary Feedback Intervention Theory." Psychological Bulletin, vol. 119 no. 2: 254–284.

(5) Hattie, John. 2009. Visible Learning: A Synthesis of Over 8700 Meta-Analyses Relating to Achievement. New York, NY: Routledge.

(6) Farr, Steven. 2010. Teaching as Leadership: The Highly Effective Teacher’s Guide to Closing the Achievement Gap. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Characteristics References

(1) Beaton, Albert E., Ina V.S. Mullis, Michael O. Martin, Eugenio J. Gonzalez, Dana L. Kelly, Teresa A. Smith. 1996. Mathematics Achievement in the Middle School Years: IEA's Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). Chestnut Hill, MA: International Study Center, Boston College.

Martinez, Joseph G.R., and Nancy C. Martinez. 1999. "Teacher Effectiveness and Learning for Mastery. The Journal of Educational Research, vol. 92 no. 5: 279–285.

(2) California Department of Education. 2006. Mathematics Framework for California Public Schools: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(3) Coleman, David, and Susan Pimentel. 2012. Revised Publishers’ Criteria for the Common Core State Standards in English language Arts and Literacy, Grades 3–12. Washington, DC: National Governors Association.

(4) California Department of Education. 2007. Reading/Language Arts Framework for California Public Schools: Kindergarten Through Grade Twelve. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(5) National Research Council Staff. 2000. How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

State Superintendent of Public Instruction Education Technology Task Force. 2012. Education Technology Task Force Recommendations (PDF) (accessed August 5, 2014).

(6) Echevarria, Jana, and Deborah Short. 2010. Programs and Practices for Effective Sheltered Content Instruction. In Improving Education for English Learners: Research-Based Approaches, 251–322. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(7) Thurlow, Martha L. 2012. "Common Core State Standards: The Promise and the Peril for Students with Disabilities. The Special Edge, vol. 25 no. 3.

(8) Blase, Joseph, and Jo R. Blase. 2001. Empowering Teachers: What Successful Principals Do. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Leithwood, Kenneth, Karen Seashore Louis, Stephen Anderson, and Kyla Wahlstrom. 2004. How Leadership Influences Student Learning. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement, University of Minnesota.

Johnson Jr., Joseph F., and Rose Asera. 1999. Hope for Urban Education: A Study of Nine High-Performing, High-Poverty, Urban Elementary Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

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Leaders

Definition References

(1) Wahlstrom, Kyla L., Karen Seashore Louis, Kenneth Leithwood, and Stephen E. Anderson. 2010. Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning: Executive Summary of Research Findings. New York, NY: Wallace Foundation, with the University of Minnesota and University of Toronto.

(2) Clifford, Matthew, Ellen Behrstock-Sherratt, Jenni Fetters. 2012. The Ripple Effect: A Synthesis of Research on Principal Influence to Inform Performance Evaluation Design. Naperville, IL: American Institutes for Research.

(3) Hallinger, Philip, and Ronald H. Heck. 2010. "Collaborative Leadership and School Improvement: Understanding the Impact on School Capacity and Student Learning." School Leadership and Management, vol. 30 no. 2: 95–110.

Spillane, James P., Richard Halverson, and John B. Diamond. "Investigating School Leadership Practice: A Distributed Perspective." Educational Researcher, vol. 30 no. 3: 23–28.

(4) Thorpe, Richard, Jeff Gold, and John Lawler. 2011. "Locating Distributed Leadership." International Journal of Management Reviews, vol. 13 no. 3: 239–250.

(5) Shannon, G. Sue., and Pete Bylsma. 2007. The Nine Characteristics of High-Performing Schools: A research-based resource for schools and districts to assist with improving student learning. Olympia, WA: Office of Superintendent of Public Instruction.

Patton, Daniel C., and Lorena Munoz. 2008. Examining Middle Schools That Narrowed the Achievement Gap in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Los Angeles, CA: Los Angeles Unified School District Research and Planning.

(6) Elmore, Richard F. 2000. Building a New Structure for Leadership. Washington, DC: The Albert Shanker Institute.

Importance References

(1) Leithwood, Kenneth, Karen Seashore Louis, Stephen Anderson, and Kyla Wahlstrom. 2004. How Leadership Influences Student Learning. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement, University of Minnesota.

(2) Baroody, Karen. 2011. Turning Around the Nation’s Lowest-Performing Schools: Five Steps Districts Can Take to Improve Their Chances of Success. Washington, DC: Center for American Progress.

(3) Williams, Trish, Michael W. Kirst, Edward Haertel, Matthew Rosin, Mary Perry, Ben Webman, Kathy Wilson, Rebecca Payne, Kathryn Morgan Woodward, Jesse Levin, William L. Padia, and Robert Balfanz. 2010. Gaining Ground in the Middle Grades: Why Some Schools Do Better. Mountain View, CA: EdSource.

(4) Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2007. Excellent Teachers Deserve Excellent Leaders. In Education Leadership: A Bridge to School Reform, 17–24. New York, NY: The Wallace Foundation.

(5) Spillane, James P., Richard Halverson, and John B. Diamond. "Investigating School Leadership Practice: A Distributed Perspective." Educational Researcher, vol. 30 no. 3: 23–28.

(6) Seashore Louis, Karen, Kenneth Leithwood, Kyla L. Wahlstrom, and Stephen E. Anderson. 2010. Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning (Final Report). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement/University of Minnesota, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education/University of Toronto.

(7) Marzano, Robert J., Timothy Waters, and Brian A. McNulty. 2005. School Leadership That Works: From Research to Results. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Characteristics References

(1) California Professional Standards for Educational Leaders. 2001. California Professional Standards for Educational Leaders. Sacramento, CA: WestEd and the Association of California School Administrators.

(2) Williams, Trish, Michael Kirst, Edward Haertel, Mary Perry, Carol Studier, Noli Brazil, Sean Reardon, Elisabeth Woody, Melissa Henne, Jesse Levin, and Roger Levine. 2005. Similar Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A large-scale survey of California elementary schools serving low-income students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource.

(3) Elmore, Richard F. 2002. "Hard Questions about Practice." Beyond Educational Leadership, vol. 59 no. 8: 22–25.

(4) Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ruth Chung Wei, Alethea Andree, Nikole Richardson, and Stelios Orphanos; The School Redesign Network at Stanford University. 2009. Professional Learning in the Learning Profession: A Status Report on Teacher Development in the United States and Abroad. Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council.

(5) Coggshall, Jane G., Claudette Rasmussen, Amy Colton, Jessica Milton, and Catherine Jacques. 2012. A Research and Policy Brief Generating Teaching Effectiveness: The Role of Job-Embedded Professional Learning in Teacher Evaluation. Washington, DC: National Comprehensive Center for Teacher Quality.

(6) Seashore Louis, Karen, Kenneth Leithwood, Kyla L. Wahlstrom, and Stephen E. Anderson. 2010. Learning from Leadership: Investigating the Links to Improved Student Learning (Final Report). Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement/University of Minnesota, Ontario Institute for Studies in Eduation/University of Toronto.

(7) Ibid.

(8) Portin, Bradley S., Michael S. Knapp, Scott Dareff, Sue Feldman, Felice A. Russell, Catherine Samuelson, C., and Theresa Ling Yeh. 2009. Leadership for Learning Improvement in Urban Schools. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington. The Wallace Foundation.

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Professional Learning

Definition References

(1) Easton, Lois Brown. 2008. "From Professional Development to Professional Learning." Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 89 no. 10: 755–759.

(2) California Department of Education. 2012. News Release #12-9, Torlakson Launches Effort to Boost Educator Excellence. http://www.cde.ca.gov/nr/ne/yr12/yr12rel9.asp (accessed July 31, 2014).

(3) Darling-Hammond, Linda, Ruth Chung Wei, Alethea Andree, Nikole Richardson, and Stelios Orphanos; The School Redesign Network at Stanford University. 2009. Professional learning in the learning profession: A status report on Teacher Development in the United States and Abroad. Dallas, TX: National Staff Development Council.

Importance References

(1) Easton, Lois Brown. 2008. "From Professional Development to Professional Learning." Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 89 no. 10: 755–759.

(2) Sharratt, Lyn, and Michael Fullan. 2009. Realization: The Change Imperative for Deepening District-Wide Reform. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Fullan, Michael. 1993. Change Forces: Probing the Depths of Educational Reform. London, England: Falmer.

(3) Bryk, Anthony S., Penny Bender Sebring, Elaine Allensworth, Stuart Luppescu, and John Q. Easton. 2010. Organizing Schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago, IL and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Donaldson Jr., Gordon A. 2008. How Leaders Learn: Cultivating Capacities for School Improvement. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Guskey, Thomas R. (1999). Evaluating Professional Development. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin.

Leithwood, Kenneth, Karen Seashore Louis, Stephen Anderson, and Kyla Wahlstrom. 2004. How Leadership Influences Student Learning. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement, University of Minnesota.

Stoll, Louis, and Karen Seashore Louis. 2007. Professional Learning Communities: Divergence, Depth and Dilemmas. Berkshire, England: Open University Press.

(4) Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Silvia Wen-Yu Lee, Beth Scarloss, and Kathy L. Shapley. 2007. Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. (Issues & Answers Report, REL 2007-No. 033) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest.

Characteristics References

(1) Vescio, Vicki, Dorene Ross, and Alyson Adams. 2008. "A Review of Research on the Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Teaching Practice and Student Learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, vol. 24 no. 1: 80–91.

(2) Ball, Deborah Loewenberg, and David K. Cohen. 1999. Developing Practice, Developing Practitioners: Toward a Practice-Based Theory of Professional Development. In G. Sykes and L. Darling-Hammond (Eds.), Teaching as the Learning Profession: Handbook of Policy and Practice (pp. 3–32). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Garet, Michael S., Andrew C. Porter, Laura Desimone, Beatrice F. Birman, and Kwang Suk Yoon. 2001. "What Makes Professional Development Effective? Results From a National Sample of Teachers." American Educational Research Journal, vol. 38 no. 4: 915–945.

Yoon, Kwang Suk, Teresa Duncan, Silvia Wen-Yu Lee, Beth Scarloss, and Kathy L. Shapley. 2007. Reviewing the Evidence on How Teacher Professional Development Affects Student Achievement. (Issues & Answeres Report, REL 2007-No. 033) Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences, National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Regional Educational Laboratory Southwest.

(3) California Department of Education. 2013. The Superintendent's California Quality Professional Learning Standards. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

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Resource Alignment

Definition References

(1) Baker, Bruce D. 2012. Revisiting that Age-Old Question: Does Money Matter In Education? Washington, DC: The Albert Shanker Institute.

Importance Resources

(1) Bryk, Anthony S., Penny Bender Sebring, Elaine Allensworth, Stuart Luppescu, and John Q. Easton. 2010. Organizing Schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago. Chicago, IL and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Marzano, Robert J. 2003. What Works in Schools: Translating Research Into Action. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Marzano, Robert J., Debra J. Pickering, and Jane E. Pollock. 2001. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

Schmoker, Michael J. 1999. Results: The Key to Continuous School Improvement. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

(2) Bredeson, Paul V. 1996. "Superintendents’ Roles in Curriculum Development and Instructional Leadership: Instructional Visionaries, Collaborators, Supporters, and Delegators." Journal of School Leadership, vol. 6 no. 3: 243–264.

(3) Hanushek, Eric A. 1989. "The Impact of Differential Expenditures on School Performance." Educational Researcher, vol. 18 no. 4: 45–51 + 62.

(4) Hedges, Larry V., Richard D. Laine, and Rob Greenwald. 1994. "An Exchange: Part I: Does Money Matter? A Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Differential School Inputs on Student Outcomes." Educational Researcher, vol. 23 no. 3: 5–14.

Crampton, Faith E. 1995. "Is the Production Function Dead? An Analysis of the Relationship of Educational Inputs on School Outcomes." A presentation to the Annual Conference of the American Education Finance Association.

Characteristics References

(1) Picus, Lawrence O. 1995. "Does Money Matter in Education? A Policymaker’s Guide." Selected Papers in School Finance. In Selected Papers in School Finance, edited by William J. Fowler. 19-35. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics.

(2) Williams, Trish, Michael Kirst, Edward Haertel, Mary Perry, Carol Studier, Noli Brazil, Sean Reardon, Elisabeth Woody, Melissa Henne, Jesse Levin, and Roger Levine. 2005. Similar Students, Different Results: Why Do Some Schools Do Better? A large-scale survey of California elementary schools serving low-income students. Mountain View, CA: EdSource.

(3) Lane, Brett. 2009. Exploring the Pathway to Rapid District Improvement. Lincoln, IL: Center for Innovation and Improvement.

(4) Rorrer, Andrea K., Linda Skrla, and James Joseph Scheurich. 2008. "Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform." Educational Administration Quarterly, vol. 44 no. 3: 307-357.

(5) Roza, Marguerite. 2010. Now is a Great Time to Consider the Per Unit Cost of Everything in Education. Paper prepared for the American Enterprise Institute and Thomas B. Fordham Institute conference, A Penny Saved: How Schools and Districts Can Tighten Their Belts While Serving Students Better. Washington, DC.

(6) Rorrer, Andrea K., Linda Skrla, and James Joseph Scheurich. 2008. "Districts as Institutional Actors in Educational Reform." Educational Administration Quarterly, vol. 44 no. 3: 307-357.

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Students Learning and Thriving

(1) California Department of Education. 2011. A Blueprint for Great Schools: Transition Advisory Team Report by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(2) Stembler, Steven E., Damian Bebell, and Lauren Ann Sonnabend. 2011. "Using School Mission Statements for Reflection and Research." Education Administration Quarterly, vol. 47 no. 2: 383–420.

California Research Bureau. 2000. California's Public Schools: What Experts Say About Their Mission and Functions Prepared for the Joint Legislative Committee to Develop a Master Plan for Eduation - Kindergarten Through University by Patricia L. de Cos. Sacramento, CA: California State Library.

(3) Zins, Joseph E., Roger P. Weissberg, Margaret C. Wang, and Herbert J. Walberg. 2004. Building School Success Through Social and Emotional Learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

(4) Rogers, John, Melanie Bertrand, and Wendy Perez. 2012. Finding Common Ground in Education Values: Influential Californians Speak on the Purpose of Public Education. Los Angeles: UCLA IDEA.

(5) Zins, Joseph E., Roger P. Weissberg, Margaret C. Wang, and Herbert J. Walberg. 2004. Building School Success Through Social and Emotional Learning. New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

(6) Ibid.

(7) Dweck, Carol. 2006. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York, NY: Ballantine Books.

Tough, Paul. 2012. How Children Succeed. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company.

(8) Rogers, John, Melanie Bertrand, and Wendy Perez. 2012. Finding Common Ground in Education Values: Influential Californians Speak on the Purpose of Public Education. Los Angeles: UCLA IDEA.

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Teachers

(1) Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2006. Powerful Teacher Education: Lessons from Exemplary Programs. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

Definition References

(1) Danielson, Charlotte. 2007. Enhancing Professional Practice: A Framework for Teaching. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.

(2) Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2006. Powerful Teacher Education: Lessons from Exemplary Programs. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

(3) Ibid.

National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. 2006. What Makes a Teacher Effective? A summary of key research findings on teacher preparation. Washington, DC: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher.

California Department of Education. 2012. Greatness by Design: Supporting Outstanding Teaching to Sustain a Golden State. A report by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson’s Task Force on Educator Excellence. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(4) National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education. 2006. What Makes a Teacher Effective? A summary of key research findings on teacher preparation. Washington, DC: National Council for Accreditation of Teacher.

California Department of Education. 2012. Greatness by Design: Supporting Outstanding Teaching to Sustain a Golden State. A report by State Superintendent of Public Instruction Tom Torlakson’s Task Force on Educator Excellence. Sacramento, CA: California Department of Education.

(5) Fullan, Michael and Jim Knight. 2011. "Coaches as System Leaders." Educational Leadership, vol. 69 no. 2: 50–53.

(6) Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2012. Creating a Comprehensive System for Evaluating and Supporting Effective Teaching. Stanford, CA: Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.

(7) Ball, Deborah Loewenberg, and Francesca M. Forzani. 2010–2011. "Teaching Skillful Teaching." The Effective Educator, vol. 68 no. 4: 40–45.

Coggshall, Jane G., Ellen Behrstock-Sherratt, and Karen Drill. 2011. Workplaces That Support High-Performing Teaching and Learning: Insights From Generation Y Teachers. A Report from the American Federation of Teachers and American Institutes for Research. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research.

(8) Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1999. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington.

Importance References

(1) Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. 2012. Gathering Feedback for Teaching: Combining High-Quality Observations with Student Surveys and Achievement Gains. Seattle, WA: Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, The MET Project Policy and Practice Brief.

(2) The Education Trust. 2009. Access to Strong Teachers External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed July 31, 2014).

(3) Birch, Sondra H., and Gary W. Ladd. 1997. "The Teacher-Child Relationship and Children’s Early School Adjustment." Journal of School Psychology, vol. 35 no. 1: 61–79.

Buyse, Evelien, Karine Verschueren, Pieter, and Jan Van Damme. 2009. "Predicting School Adjustment in Early Elementary School: Impact of Teacher‐Child Relationship Quality and Relational Classroom Climate." The Elementary School Journal, vol. 110 no. 2: 119–141.

(4) Pianta, Robert C., and Megan W. Stuhlman. 2004. "Teacher-Child Relationships and Children’s Success in the First Years of School." School Psychology Review, vol. 33 no. 3: 444–458.

(5) Wentzel, Kathryn R. 2012. "Teacher-Student Relationships and Adolescent Competence at School." Interpersonal Relationships in Education: Advances in Learning Environments Research, vol 3: 19–35. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: SensePublishers.

(6) McCormick, Meghan P., Erin E. O’Connor, Elise Cappella, and Sandee G. McClowry. 2013. "Teacher-Child Relationships and Academic Achievement: A Multilevel Propensity Score Model Approach." Journal of School Psychology, vol. 51 no. 5: 611–624.

Birch, Sondra H., and Gary W. Ladd. 1997. "The Teacher-Child Relationship and Children’s Early School Adjustment." Journal of School Psychology, vol. 35 no. 1: 61–79.

Hairrell, Angela, William H. Rupley, Meaghan Edmonds, Ross Larsen, Deborah Simmons, Victor Willson, Glenda Byrns, and Sharon Vaughn. 2011. "Examining the Impact of Teacher Quality on Fourth-Grade Students’ Comprehension and Content-Area Achievement." Reading & Writing Quarterly, vol. 27 no. 3: 239–260.

Characteristics References

(1) Rice, Jennifer King. 2003. Teacher Quality: Understanding the Effectiveness of Teacher Attributes. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.

Marzano, Robert J. 2010–2011. "Art & Science of Teaching / What Teachers Gain from Deliberate Practice." The Effective Educator, vol. 68 no. 4: 82–85.

Orange County Department of Education. 2011. The California Common Core Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects. The California Common Core Standards Mathematics External link opens in new window or tab. (accessed July 31, 2014).

(2) Darling-Hammond, Linda. 2006. Powerful Teacher Education: Lessons from Exemplary Programs. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.

(3) Darling-Hammond, Linda. 1999. Teacher Quality and Student Achievement: A Review of State Policy Evidence. Seattle, WA: Center for the Study of Teaching and Policy, University of Washington.

Wayne, Andrew J., and Peter Youngs. 2003. "Teacher Characteristics and Student Achievement Gains: A Review." Review of Educational Research, vol. 73 no. 1: 89–122.

(4) Commission on Teacher Credentialing. 2009. California Standards for the Teaching Profession. Sacramento, CA: Commission on Teacher Credentialing.

(5) Ibid.

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Excerpted from CDE’s External Linking Policy: The CDE is providing these external links only as a convenience, and the inclusion of any external link does not imply endorsement by the CDE or any association with the sites' operators.

Questions: Quality Schooling Framework | QSF@cde.ca.gov | 916-319-0836 
Last Reviewed: Wednesday, February 15, 2017
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