Skip to main content
California Department of Education Logo

T-SEL Competencies References

References cited in the Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) Competencies.

Atwell, M. N., J. M. Bridgeland, and E. P. Manspile. 2021. “Ready to Engage: Perspectives of Teachers and Parents on SEL and Service Learning IN America’s Public Schools." External link opens in new window or tab. (PDF) Civic with Hart Research Associates. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

CASEL. 2020. “Restorative Practices and SEL Alignment." External link opens in new window or tab. CASEL Guide to Schoolwide SEL. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Copur-Gencturk, Y., J. R. Cimpian, S. T. Lubienski, and I. Thacker. 2020. “Teachers’ Bias Against the Mathematical Ability of Female, Black, and Hispanic Students.” Educational Researcher, 49(1): 30–43.

Cotton Bronk, K. 2014. Purpose in Life: A Critical Component of Optimal Youth Development. New York: Springer, Dordrecht.

Darling-Hammond, L., L. Flook, C. Cook-Harvey, B. Barron, and D. Osher. 2020. “Implications for Educational Practice of The Science of Learning and Development.” Applied Developmental Science 24(2): 97–140.

Dixson, D., D. Keltner, F. C. Worrell, and Z. Mello. 2018. “The Magic of Hope: Hope Mediates the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement.” The Journal of Educational Research 111(4): 507–515.

Durlak, J. A., R. P. Weissberg, A. B. Dymnicki, R. D. Taylor, and K. B. Schellinger. 2011. “The Impact of Enhancing Students’ Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta‐Analysis of School‐Based Universal Interventions.” Child Development 82: 405–432.

Dweck, Carol S. 2006. Mindset: The New Psychology of Success. New York: Random House.

Fine, S. E., C. E. Izard, A. J. Mostow, C. J. Trentacosta, and B. P. Ackerman. 2003. “First Grade Emotion Knowledge as a Predictor of Fifth Grade Self-Reported Internalizing Behaviors In Children From Economically Disadvantaged Families.” Development and Psychopathology 15(2): 331–342.

Ginwright, S. 2018. The Future of Healing: Shifting From Trauma Informed Care to Healing Centered Engagement External link opens in new window or tab.. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Greater Good in Education. 2019. SEL for Adults: Self-Awareness and Self-Management, Why Are They Important? External link opens in new window or tab. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Hoffmann, J. D., M. A. Brackett, C. S. Bailey, and C. J. Willner. 2020. “Teaching Emotion Regulation in Schools: Translating Research into Practice with the RULER Approach to Social and Emotional Learning.” Emotion 20(1): 105–109.

Jagers, R., D. Rivas-Drake, and T. Borowski. 2018. Equity & Social and Emotional Learning: A Cultural Analysis. External link opens in new window or tab. (PDF) CASEL. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Jagers, R., D. Rivas-Drake, and B. Williams. 2019. “Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (SEL): Toward SEL in Service of Educational Equity and Excellence.” Educational Psychologist 54(3): 162–184.

Jennings, P., and M. Greenberg. 2009. “The Prosocial Classroom: Teacher Social and Emotional Competence in Relation to Student and Classroom Outcomes.” Review of Educational Research 79(1): 491–525.

Johnson, D. W., and R. T. Johnson. 1996. “Conflict Resolution and Peer Mediation Programs in Elementary and Secondary Schools: A Review of the Research.” Review of Educational Research 66(4): 459–506.

Jones, D., M. Greenberg, and M. Crowley. 2015. “Early Social-Emotional Functioning and Public Health: The Relationship Between Kindergarten Social Competence and Future Wellness.” American Journal of Public Health 105: 2283–2290.

Learning for Justice (formerly Teaching Tolerance). 2021. Social Justice Standards External link opens in new window or tab.. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

National Equity Project. 2021. Social and Emotional Learning and Equity External link opens in new window or tab.. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Nagaoka, J., C. Farrington, S. B. Ehrlich, R. D. Heath, D. W. Johnson, S. Dickson, A. Turner, A. Mayo, K. C. Hayes. 2015. Foundations for Young Adult Success: A Developmental Framework External link opens in new window or tab. (PDF). Retrieved June 29, 2021.

Okonofua, J. A., and J. L. Eberhardt. 2015. “Two Strikes: Race and the Disciplining of Young Students.” Psychological Science 26(5): 617–624.

Osher, D., P. Cantor, J. Berg, L. Steyer, and T. Rose. 2020. “Drivers of Human Development: How Relationships and Context Shape Learning and Development.” Applied Developmental Science 24(1): 6–36.

Osterman, K. F. 2000. “Students’ Need for Belonging in the School Community.” Review of Educational Research 70(3): 323–367.

Paris, D., and H. S. Alim. 2017. Culturally Sustaining Pedagogies: Teaching and Learning for Justice in A Changing World. New York: Teachers College Press.

Rivas-Drake, D., and A. J. Umaña-Taylor. 2019. Below the Surface: Talking with Teens about Race, Ethnicity, and Identity. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Roehlkepartain, E. C., K. Pekel, A. K. Syvertsen, J. Sethi, T. K. Sullivan, and P. C. Scales. 2017. Relationships First: Creating Connections that Help Young People Thrive External link opens in new window or tab. (PDF). Minnesota: Search Institute. Retrieved June 29, 2021.

Roorda, D. L., H. M. Y. Koomen, J. L. Spilt, and F. J. Oort. 2011. “The Influence of Affective Teacher–Student Relationships on Students’ School Engagement and Achievement: A Meta-Analytic Approach.” Review of Educational Research 81(4): 493–529.

Saavedra, E., & E. Nolan. 2018. Toward Transformative Social and Emotional Learning: Using an Equity Lens. Adapted from Social and Emotional Learning: A Cultural Analysis by Robert Jagers, Deborah Rivas-Drake, and Teresa Borowski External link opens in new window or tab. (PDF). Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Saito, R. N., and T. K. Sullivan. 2011. “The Many Faces, Features and Outcomes of Youth Engagement.” Journal of Youth Development 6:107–123.

Schaffer, L. 2018. Exploring Ethnic-Racial Identity: New research reveals long-lasting, positive effects of giving adolescents opportunities and tools to explore their backgrounds External link opens in new window or tab.. Usable Knowledge: Research Stories. Retrieved June 2, 2021.

Smetana, J. 2013. “Moral development: The Social Domain Theory View.” The Oxford Handbook of Developmental Psychology: Body and Mind 1:832–864.

Spinrad, T. L., and N. Eisenberg, N. 2009. “Empathy, Prosocial Behavior, and Positive Development in Schools.” In Handbook of Positive Psychology in Schools. New York: Taylor and Francis.

Starck, J. G., T. Riddle, S. Sinclair, and N. Warikoo. 2020. “Teachers Are People Too: Examining the Racial Bias of Teachers Compared to Other American Adults.” Educational Researcher 49(4): 273–284.

Walton, G. M., and S. T. Brady. 2017. “The Many Questions of Belonging.” In Handbook of competence and motivation: Theory and Application, edited by A. J. Elliot, C. S. Dweck, and D. S. Yeager. New York: The Guilford Press.

Winterich, K. P., K. Aquino, V. Mittal, and R. Swartz. 2013. When Moral Identity Symbolization Motivates Prosocial Behavior: The Role of Recognition and Moral Identity Internalization. Journal of Applied Psychology 98(5): 759–770.

Questions:   Professional Learning Innovations Office | CaliforniaSEL@cde.ca.gov | 916-322-9503
Last Reviewed: Wednesday, June 30, 2021
Recently Posted in Social and Emotional Learning
  • T-SEL Readiness and Reflection Prompts (added 21-Jul-2021)
    Readiness and reflection prompts to support the implementation of California Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) Competencies and Conditions.
  • T-SEL Competencies: Relationship Skills (added 30-Jun-2021)
    The Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) competency of relationship skills is the ability to establish, maintain, and restore healthy, supportive relationships and to navigate diverse settings.
  • T-SEL Competencies: Responsible Decision-Making (added 30-Jun-2021)
    The Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) competency of responsible decision-making is the ability to make caring and constructive choices about personal behavior and social interactions across diverse situations.
  • T-SEL Long Descriptions (added 30-Jun-2021)
    Long descriptions of figures featured in the California Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) Competencies and Conditions.
  • T-SEL Competencies: Self-Management (added 30-Jun-2021)
    The Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) competency of self-management is the ability to harness one's emotions, thoughts, and behaviors effectively in different situations and to achieve goals and aspirations.

  • T-SEL Competencies: Social Awareness (added 30-Jun-2021)
    The Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) competency of social awareness is the ability to understand the perspectives of and empathize with others, including those from diverse backgrounds, cultures, and contexts.
  • T-SEL Competencies References (added 30-Jun-2021)
    References cited in the Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) Competencies.
  • T-SEL Conditions: Classroom and Expanded Learning (added 30-Jun-2021)
    Guidance for people leading classrooms and expanded learning programs (educators) to co-create Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) Conditions for Thriving.
  • Conditions for Thriving: County Education Leaders (added 30-Jun-2021)
    Guidance to support county education leaders to co-create Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) Conditions for Thriving.
  • Conditions for Thriving: District Leaders (added 30-Jun-2021)
    Guidance to support district leaders to co-create Transformative Social and Emotional Learning (T-SEL) Conditions for Thriving.