Transcript: Grade Four Science Integrated ELDGrade Four Science Integrated English Language Development (ELD) Video Transcript.
Grade Four Science Integrated English Language Development: How Solar Panels Work
Introductory Slides (0:00–2:35)
Narrator: Welcome to the California Department of Education Integrated and Designated English Language Development Transitional Kindergarten through Grade Twelve Video Series—Science with Integrated English Language Development in Grade Four. In this two-part lesson, the students are in the middle of a science unit on solar energy as a resource. At the end of the unit, each student will read an informational report discussing the positive and negative effects of energy resources for a green future.
Narrator: The California Next Generation Science Standards Driving the Lesson. The Science Performance Expectation is Grade 4, Earth and Space Science 3, Sub-item 1, Earth and Human Activity; where students who demonstrate understanding can obtain and combine information to describe that energy and fuels are derived from natural resources and their uses affect the environment. Watch for how this California Science Standard is addressed throughout the lesson.
Narrator: The Supporting California English Language Development Standards Used in Tandem with the Science Standards. The English Language Development Standards at the Bridging Level are: Grade 4, Part 1, Standard 1: Exchanging Information and Ideas, where students contribute to class, group, and partner discussions, including sustained dialogue, by following turn-taking rules, asking relevant questions, affirming others, adding relevant information, building on responses, and providing useful feedback. And Grade 4, Part 2, Standard 2B: Understanding Cohesion, where students apply increasing understanding of how ideas, events, or reasons are linked throughout a text using an increasing variety of academic connecting and transitional words or phrases to comprehending text and writing cohesive texts. Watch how students move from early levels of proficiency toward the Bridging Levels of these English language development standards throughout the lesson.
Narrator: In the first part of the lesson, watch how the teacher leads the students toward accurate expression of their science content knowledge by engaging them in a hands-on inquiry task. The students listen to and produce the language necessary to explain scientific phenomena, and then apply learned language structures and vocabulary to the task.
Teacher Introduces the Lesson (2:35–4:02)
Teacher: Today we're gonna look really closely at solar energy, so I want you to read the objective with me. Ready? Begin.
Whole Group: “We will write the process of how solar energy works.”
Teacher: Pretty simple objective there, but we're gonna take a lot of steps to get this process down, okay? Or a lot of steps to learn what this process really is. We've learned about solar energy. We've learned about positives and negatives of using solar energy, but now I really want to know, how does solar energy work? Okay? If I'm going to explain it to somebody can I describe the process of how solar energy works? That's our whole objective here. Okay? I want you to make a hypothesis, an educated guess here, about what the answer to that question is. How do solar panels produce energy? So, actually think right now. And in your partnerships with somebody at your table I want you to talk really quick and answer this question the best you can. Maybe add on to each other's ideas if you want to extend those thoughts.
Student 1: Sometimes solar panels absorb it and then it goes inside the solar panel through some watering and then it goes to like through the lights and then you can connect it to the phone so you can charge it. That's how I think solar panels work.
Students Discuss in Small Groups (4:02–10:23)
Teacher: Our experiment, you're gonna have two supplies: a bobble toy, a bobblehead toy, or solar panel toy of some sort, some look different, but it has solar panels on it. And you're gonna have a flashlight. Okay? Now what you're going to do is, this is going to serve as your sun, okay, and this is going to have your solar panel. And I want you to make a prediction here, what do you think is gonna happen if I take my sun and put it towards my solar panels? Make a hypothesis. What do you believe will happen here? And I want you to talk with a partner. Now go!
Student 2: So how would that do it in a real-life situation?
Student 3: So, it's got like the bobble thing is like the solar panel and then the other, then the sun, the flashlight, the sun is gonna hit the solar panel which is gonna generate the thing to move.
Student 4: The electricity?
Student 2: So, it’s gonna generate the electricity into the wall hole thing and then it’s gonna make it move because they're using electricity to make it move.
Student 3: What do you think?
Student 2: I agree with you guys because I was actually thinking the same thing.
Teacher: Now you had a chance to talk to your tables, get some ideas, put it into words, on the make-a-hypothesis sheet, or section of the box, please write down what you think will happen. Lots of ways you can start that: I believe that [fill in the blank], I predict that [fill in the blank], I hypothesize that [fill in the blank]. Write it down just in a quick statement. One statement. That's all you need. I'm gonna have somebody share out their answer of what they put here for their hypothesis, what did you hypothesize about, Edgar?
Student 5: I believe that when you shine the light to the toy like the dark color is going to be like, like a bright color?
Teacher: Mmm, like the dark color on the panel will turn light? Like a bright color? Bright color. Okay, okay. Do I have another hypothesis? Alicia?
Student 6: I believe that when the sun touches the solar panel, the solar toy will start to move side to side.
Teacher: We had some good predictions. So, now what we're gonna do is actually start to experiment with our solar panels on your desk. You have either a solar panel bobblehead, or just a little toy, or something completely different. So, you now are going to do that experiment. Position two: you are gonna be our sun. You're gonna be in charge of that flashlight. And what you're going to do, I will model with you. When I say, you'll take off the tape. You're gonna turn your flashlight on and you're gonna hold it far away, and increasingly get closer and closer and closer. As you're doing that, I want you to pay attention to your object, excuse me, object and what your object is doing because of that. Does something happen? Does it remain the same? I want you to start to see here and I want you to have in your conversations, “I observe this,” or “Oh! I am noticing this, I recognize this.” And I want you to have that discussion with each other about what you're noticing within this experiment.
Student 7: I realize something.
Student 1: Oh, his eyes are moving.
Student 8: I didn’t realize.
Student 1: That’s what I pre. That's what I believe that would happen. That the toy was going to move.
Student 7: I realize something.
Student 8: What?
Student 7: It's moving faster
Student 9: Ohh, it’s moving faster.
Student 7: When I come out…
Student 1: It’s not that faster.
Student 8: It’s not that faster at all.
Student 7: When I go closer, it’s going to go fast.
Student 9: Ohh!
Student 1: That's what I predicted that it was gonna move.
Teacher: You guys have a little different one. You are actually gonna hold it up, and I want you to count to 10. So, after you count to 10 you are going to cover the solar panel. But do it like that. Chris will hold it, and hold it up to it, real close. Go up closer. Count to 10.
Students: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10.
Student 10: Cover it.
Students: Ooohh! It makes a light!
Student 11: I knew that would happen.
Student 10: Yeah. I knew that would happen.
Student 11: Oh.
Student 10: That's weird. Can I try?
Student 12: That’s so weird. I want to do it again.
Student 10: That’s…okay wait let’s. Wait, but how do we turn it off?
Student 12: True.
Student 11: I don't think we turn it off.
Student 12: Well, let's try doing it to see if it turns off. Let’s see if it can turn off.
Student 10: Yeah, lets’ see if it can turn off. Ready? So, hold it again.
Student 12: No, cover it.
Student 11: Oh.
Student 12: That could go.
Student 10: How does that go?
Student 12: Don’t…
Student 10: No, I think take it off.
Student 11: Yeah, I’m going to take it off.
Teacher: Okay, so go ahead. Now did you cover it up?
Student 11: It makes a light.
Students: It turns on.
Student 11: I predicted that because we had a different one. So, I predicted that was gonna make it light and then I got it right.
Teacher: Why did you think that works? Why do you think that's happening here?
Student 11: Because the sun rays went in it, and it made it go into something to make a light. So, its like... it's like the sun going into a solar panel, and making electricity for a light bulb.
Teacher: You have three boxes. I want you to either draw, write bullet points, or write a sentence, about the steps you took in your experiment. How did it look at first before you even had your sunlight there? What did you do? And then what was happening because of that? Okay? I don't care if it's pictures. I don't care if you want to do bullet points or if you want to write sentences. But I need three steps here of what you observed as you were doing this experiment. Pictures, key ideas, sentences. What happened in three steps with your project? And I'd like you to get out your article "Solar Energy as a Resource".
Looking Deeply at Classroom Instruction (10:23–10:46)
Narrator: In the second part of the lesson, watch how the teacher first scaffolds the students' use of academic English by raising their awareness about the purpose, structure, and language features of science texts; then engages the students in collaboratively reading and analyzing a science text; and finally leads the students to write an explanation of the scientific concept learned in the hands-on inquiry task.
Whole Class Debrief (10:48–15:05)
Teacher: Okay. So, we have actually explored the text "Solar Energy as a Resource". We have done some good annotations here and we're going to use this text today in, in a expert jigsaw to help us better understand what this text is informing us about. If we remember this is an information, description type of text. So, show me genre. What is it? Information description. What is the purpose? And I'll help you here. It's to describe, define, or categorize information. So, show me again. It is to describe, define, or classify information. Good. The structure here, okay. How do we structure our informational text? We use a statement that identifies the topic. We use descriptive facts and details, and we have a concluding statement about the topic. Okay. So, every new language feature— The language feature that we're actually going to focus on are connectives. Everyone say connectives.
Teacher: Connectives. And more specifically the type of connectives are sequential. So, everyone do sequential.
Teacher: Very good. So, we're actually gonna do some stronger connectives here like, “initially, after”, or “thereafter,” and then “as a result.” So, we're gonna use sequential connectives to help us understand this process of solar energy. Okay? With your table groups, what did you notice about the text structure of all three of these paragraphs? Talk about it. What do we figure out last time?
Student 1: Like, step by step. Like how solar energy works.
Teacher: Think about the text structure. What do we notice about the way each of these is structured? Are they exactly the same? Are they structured differently? We wrote it off to the side too. Were they all the same or a little different? Talk about that.
Student 9: It's different because these two are description and this one is explanation.
Student 1: I forgot to put it, I forgot to put it. Yeah, but like, basically, these two, but they all talk about like, how solar panels work.
Student 7: They’re just talk about different things in one.
Student 1: But they are still talking about solar energy at the same time.
Teacher: Elisa, what did you notice about the text structures of these paragraphs?
Student 13: What our group notice was that there was two descriptive paragraphs and then the very last one was an explanatory.
Teacher: Wow! We have two different types of text structures here. Paragraph one is what, class?
Teacher: It's A description. It's describing something. Okay? And paragraph two was also what? Description. And then the author threw us in for a loop and actually created our third paragraph is what type?
Teacher: An explanation of something. Okay? And that's okay, because in those types of texts it's good to see different types because they have a purpose for each one too. Which is why we go back to what our purpose was of information. If they want us to describe something, then we're gonna have to describe it with facts and details. If they want us to understand the, the sequence of something then they're gonna have to use things like connectives to describe that. Now before we get into groups, though, I want to recognize the success criteria that we need to go through. Our jobs as we get into these expert groups. You need to get into your assigned group, okay? And then you need to complete the graphic organizer as a team. Depending on what paragraph you're working on, is the type of graphic organizer that you will be working on as well. And I'll explain that in a second. And then the biggest part is you need to become an expert of your section. In your expert group you guys are going to be discussing your section becoming familiar together and using each other to build your knowledge about that section, okay?
Small Group Discussion (15:06–21:11)
Student 9: What about the last one we should do “at last.”
Student 14: How about “at the end”?
Student 9: Well... does it say that in your thing?
Student 14: “In the end” it says... it has “end,” so we could just use “the end” for “at the end”
Student 9: Is that like the end of the solar panel?
Student 14: Yeah, so the last thing it does.
Teacher: What did we come up with?
Student 14: We came up with “after. After that.”
Teacher: I like that.
Student 14: After that, the inverter collects the energy from the solar panels.
Teacher: Well, does it collect the energy? What does the inverter do? It's already collected in the solar panel. So, what does that inverter do?
Student 14: It takes the energy from the solar panel?
Teacher: It takes the energy and does what to it?
Student 14: It makes it into electricity?
Teacher: Look at the text. Go back to the text. What does it actually say? I think you'll find your answer.
Student 9: The inverter helps turn the electricity into power that can be used.
Teacher: So, what does it do?
Student 15: It helps turn electricity into power.
Teacher: It helps turn it into power. Yeah... that what's what you want to say here.
Student 14: Cuz your house needs electricity, power.
Student 9: Technically, yeah, but... I think I’m gonna put it in my own words.
Student 15: I think we should go with hers.
Student 14: What did you say?
Student 9: I said...no, I said, I'm gonna write it in my own words.
Student 14: No, just say what you said right now.
Student 9: Oh, I, I forgot.
Student 14: You said "at last,” something.
Student 9: No, wait, I think, at last...umm. At last, the household appliances, refrigerator and stove. The more things that need electricity.
Student 14: We could write that, but if it makes sense, we could write that, but since it doesn't really make sense we should just add more to it. Not just "at last". You should say "at last, something, household appliance.” So, we should write something like that.
Teacher: All right, you are in your jigsaw groups. Within these groups, I want to go over that success criteria in order to know what our job is, you need to use your graphic organizer to teach your section to your group. Second, academic discourse. I want to hear your conversations. I want to know questions you have for them. They should be the expert so you should challenge them. Oh! Why did it say that or what does that mean? Or even, I concur with you Alexis, I also realize that that was an important feature. Anything that's gonna build that conversation and make sure that you are listening to your partners as well. Okay? And also, when you're using your graphic organizer please make sure that you're allowing your partners’ time to write as well. Okay? Don't just throw out all the information to them. Maybe explain one of your boxes first, let them write, have that discussion, and then share your other ones after that.
Student 11: A solar cell is what converts sunlight into electricity. Which is a quote.
Student 7: Is that your words or in the text?
Student 11: Yes. It’s in the text.
Student 12: Quote. So, in what paragraph?
Student 11: Paragraph two.
Student 12: Solar cell is what converts sunlight into electricity, right?
Student 11: Yup.
Student 7: First sentence?
Student 11: Yeah, the first sentence.
Student 12: Okay. So first, initially, the panels are placed to get the most sunlight to receive energy. That's in the first box.
Teacher: What does “initially” mean, Kimberly?
Student 16: “Initially” means “first.”
Teacher: Good. So, she replaced it, and it had “to begin,” but she put it in her own words. So, tell them what you put after that, initially, what?
Student 16: Initially, the panels are placed to get the most sunlight to receive energy.
Teacher: That's a good fact, so why don't you guys write that one down.
Student 12: The panels are. So, the next one for solar panels is, “Then the sun hits the panels and it converts it into electricity. After the energy is being converted into electri…” Wait. “After the energy is being converted into electricity. Energy is being converted into electricity.”
Student 11: Wait. I need an eraser.
Student 16: Then what? Energy is being…
Student 12: Being converted into electricity.
[Multiple students speaking about what they are writing]
Student 12: So, the last box says, “At last, the electricity is being used for most stuff we need like stovetops, refrigerators, and televisions.”
Student Independent Work (21:12–22:35)
Teacher: So now, we're gonna reflect back. After learning about solar energy through that entire text, I want you now to write a one paragraph response answering why our experiment worked the way it will, the way it did. Why did that experiment work? Can you tell me really quick? Why did it work?
Student 9: It works because the sunlight hits the panel.
Teacher: What was the sun in our experiment? Did we have the sun in here to use it? What did we use?
Student 9: We used the flashlight.
Teacher: So, we would say that the flashlight did what?
Student 9: The flashlight, like...
Teacher: What did it represent?
Student 9: It repre—the sun.
Teacher: So, the flashlight represents the sun.
Student 9: Mm-hmm.
Teacher: And then what did it do because of that?
Student 9: It did, like, it gave the bobblehead, umm, energy, and then it was if it was farther away, then it would just do a little bit.
Teacher: How do you know what gave it energy?
Student 9: Cuz it didn't do that that fast.
Teacher: Because it was moving. So, all of that I want you to explain right here.
Whole Class Debrief (22:36–23:58)
Teacher: Really quick. I wanted to have a student share out and then I want you to be listening and to think do you agree with what they said or do you disagree with what they said? So, give them an opportunity to share out loud. And Jocelyn, I'm gonna have you read yours nice and loud, sweetie. Can you read it really loud for everybody?
Student 9: The flashlight was far away from the bobblehead, so it gave it less energy because it was far away from it. When we got the flashlight closer to the bobblehead, the bobblehead moved faster because the flashlights got closer to it, and it gave it more energy.
Teacher: Would you think to agree or disagree? Show me now. I do agree with that, that was beautifully stated. I want you guys to give Jocelyn an air high-five. Go! Good job, girl! That was beautiful. That's exactly what we wanted to do today, was be able to write how the process of solar energy works so we can explain, not just that the bobblehead moved, but we know why it moves. That those solar panels are what gave it the energy to make it move. Which is why it worked and all the different types of toys and objects that we used. So great job making that connection today you guys. Good job.
Closing Slides (23:59–25:11)
Narrator: Reflection and Discussion. Reflect on the following questions. First, how did you observe the following focal content standards and supporting English language development standards being implemented in this grade for integrated English language development lesson? Earth and Space Science 3, Sub-item 1, Earth and Human Activity. English language development Part 1, Standard 1, Exchanging Information and Ideas. And Part 2, Standard 2b, Understanding Cohesion. Second, what features of integrated English language development did you observe in the lesson? Now pause the video and engage in a discussion with colleagues.
Narrator: The California Department of Education would like to thank the administrators, teachers, and students who participated in the making of this video. This video was made possible by the California Department of Education in collaboration with WestEd and Timbre Films.