Learning FoundationsThis web page contains a list of links which provide relevant research that can be applied when developing policies, programs, and practices for English learners.
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Research and English Learner Programs
Research is the foundation for strong English Learner (EL) policies, programs, and practices. The links below provide relevant research that can be applied when developing policies, programs, and practices for English learners.
A Meta-Analysis of Selected Studies on the Effectiveness of Bilingual Education
This meta-analysis (1985), by Ann C. Willig, discusses the efficacy of bilingual education.
A Review of Research on the Impact of Professional Learning Communities on Teaching Practice and Student Learning
This manuscript (2008), by Vicki Vescio, Dorene Ross, and Alyson Adams, presents a review of studies that demonstrate the impact of professional learning communities on teaching practices and student learning.
California's Golden Opportunity—Taking Stock: Leadership from the Middle
This report (2017), by Michael Fullan and Santiago Rincon-Gallardo, is the fourth in a series of informal feedback reports on the evolution of California's education reform enacted by Governor Jerry Brown and the California State Legislature in 2013–14.
Developing Literacy in Second-Language Learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth
This volume (2006), by Diane August and Timothy Shanahan, reports the findings of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth.
Effects of the Implementation of Proposition 227 on the Education of English Learners, K–12 Findings from a Five-Year Evaluation
This report (2016), submitted to the California Department of Education by the American Institutes for Research and WestEd, discusses the effects of Proposition 227 on EL education.
English Language Proficiency Assessment in the Nation: Current Status and Future Practice
This study (2007), published by the Regents of the University of California and edited by Jamal Abedi, focuses on English language proficiency assessments and their efficacy.
Exploring Improvement Science in Education: Promoting College Access in Fresno Unified School District
This policy analysis (2017), by Jorge Aguilar, Michelle Nayfack, and Susan Bush-Mecenas, discusses how the Fresno Unified School District partnered with the University of California, Merced to develop and utilize its data dashboard and the principles of Improvement Science to increase college access for their students.
Fully Accounting for English Learner Performance: A Key Issue in ESEA Reauthorization
This article (2013), by Megan Hopkins, Karen D. Thompson, Robert Linquanti, Kenji Hakuta, and Diane August, presents a set of recommendations that promote a more nuanced, meaningful accountability policy for English learners in the next authorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act.
How Long Does It Take English Learners to Attain Proficiency
This study (2000), published by Kenji Hakuta, uses data from four school districts to answer this commonly asked question.
Improving Education for English Learners: Research-based Approaches
This book (2010), published by the California Department of Education, can be ordered here.
Summary: English learners currently constitute one in four of California's kindergarten through grade twelve public school students. Improving educational outcomes for English learners remains one of the greatest challenges in the public school system. Nationally recognized scholars have synthesized the best available research for improving educational outcomes for English learners. This publication offers a comprehensive, user-friendly review and analysis of recent research to inform and improve instructional practices.
Improving Education through Standards-Based Reform. Report by the National Academy of Education Panel on Standards-Based Education Reform
This report (1995), by Milbrey W. McLaughlin and Lorrie A. Shepard, discusses standards-based reform and recommendations for implementation.
Improving the Opportunities and Outcomes of California's Students Learning English: Findings from School District-University Collaborative Partnerships
This policy brief (2015), by Ilana M. Umansky, Sean F. Reardon, Kenji Hakuta, Karen D. Thompson, Peggy Estrada, Katherine Hayes, Hilda Maldonado, Susan Tandberg, and Claude Goldenberg, offers recommendations on changes to policy and practice to improve opportunities for English learners.
Incorporating English Learner Progress into State Accountability Systems, Washington DC: Council of Chief State School Officers
This resource (2017), by Pete Goldschmidt and Kenji Hakuta, discusses key issues in incorporating English learners into state accountability systems.
Mathematics, the Common Core, and Language: Recommendations for Mathematics Instruction for ELs Aligned with the Common Core
This paper (2011), by Judit Moschkovich, offers recommendations for EL mathematics instruction.
Moving Toward a More Common Definition of English Learner: Collected Guidance for States and Multi-State Assessment Consortia
These guidance documents (2016), by Robert Linquanti, H. Gary Cook, Alison L. Bailey, and Rita MacDonald, provide guidance for states and multi-state assessment consortia.
National Evaluation of Title III Implementation Supplementary Report—Exploring Approaches to Setting English Language Proficiency Performance Criteria and Monitoring English Learner Progress
This report (2012), prepared by Gary Cook, Robert Linquanti, Marjorie Chinen, and Hyekyung Jung, discusses proficiency criteria and monitoring EL progress.
Relationships and Convergences among the Mathematics, Science, and ELA Practices
This diagram, by Cheuk , T. (2013) and refined by the Understanding Language Initiative at Stanford University, demonstrates the convergences among mathematics, science, and English language arts practices.
Research-Practice Partnerships in Education: Outcomes, Dynamics, and Open Questions
This article (2016), by Cynthia E. Coburn and William R. Penuel, discusses the evidence and outcomes of research-practice partnerships.
Supporting Continuous Improvement in California's Education System
This policy analysis (2015), by Linda Darling-Hammond and David N. Plank, discusses California's new accountability system.
Teaching Academic Content and Literacy to English Learners in Elementary and Middle School
This practice guide (2014), prepared for the What Works Clearinghouse by Instructional Research Group, provides four recommendations that address what works for English learners during reading and content area instruction.
The Gap That Can't Go Away: The Catch-22 of Reclassification in Monitoring the Progress of English Learners
This article (2012), by Williams M. Saunders and David J. Marcelletti, discusses the issue of including or excluding reclassified English proficient students from the analysis of EL progress.
Three Structures in the Garden Grove Unified School District That Support Implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics
This report (2017), by Rebecca Perry, Frances Reade, Alberto Heredia, and Neal Finkelstein, discusses Garden Grove's implementation of the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics.
Questioning the Long-term English Learner Label: How Categorization Can Blink Us to Students' Abilities
This student (2016), by Karen Thompson, explores the characteristics and educational trajectories of students considered long-term English learners.
Unlocking the Research on English Learners: What We Know – and Don't Yet Know – About Effective Instruction
This article (2013), by Claude Goldenberg, discusses effective practices for educating English learners.