Complaint ProcessThe special education complaint process with federal and state law resource links.
The California Department of Education (CDE) resolves special education complaints.
Who may file a complaint?
Anyone, including parents, students, teachers, and agency representatives, may file complaints. The person filing a complaint is the complainant. The complaint must meet requirements as explained in this document.
Why file a complaint?
A complaint is a formal request to the CDE to investigate allegations of noncompliance with special education laws, federal or state. CDE ensures public agencies meet the educational needs of students with disabilities.
What is a complaint?
A complaint is a written document, including:
- Statements that the school district or public agency violated special education law within one year prior to the complaint being filed
- Facts on which such statements are based
- Signature and contact information for the complainant
- Child’s name, address, and school if alleging violations that are child specific
- Proposed resolutions
The complainant may use the model complaint form (PDF) or write a letter to file the complaint.
Where is a complaint filed?
Send complaints by fax or mail to:
California Department of Education
Special Education Division
1430 N Street, Suite 2401
Sacramento, CA 95814-5901
How long is a complaint investigation?
Several timelines apply to the complaint investigation process:
- Complaints must be filed within one year of the alleged violation
- Complaint investigations are completed within 60 days of receipt in PSRS
- The 60-day time limit may be extended under certain circumstances
What is a complaint investigation?
An investigator contacts the complainant and the school district or other public agency in the complaint. The investigator gathers facts about the allegations through:
- Reviews service logs and schedules
- Reviews assessments
- Reviews individualized education programs (IEPs)
- Reviews IEP team meeting minutes
- Reviews prior written notices
- On-site investigations, as needed
What is in a complaint investigation report?
Based on documentation, the investigator prepares a complaint investigation report. The report contains:
- Allegation summary
- General investigation procedures
- Applicable law and regulation
- Findings of facts
- Report conclusions (compliance or noncompliance)
- Corrective actions and timelines, if applicable
The CDE sends copies of the investigation report to the complainant, the public agency, and the parent is different from the complainant.
What if there is noncompliance?
If the report includes corrective actions, the CDE may require the school district or public agency to:
- Convene a new IEP meeting
- Conduct further assessments
- Submit plans outlining proposals to correct violations and prevent future ones
- Initiate personnel training in the areas of violations
- Provide compensatory education or reimbursement
- Review and revise procedures and practices
- Participate in monitoring and reporting activities
What if there is a disagreement with the report?
As explained at the end of each report, any party to the complaint may request reconsideration. The appeal process steps are:
- Submit the reconsideration request no later than 35 calendar days after receiving the investigation report
- Send a written request to the address found at the end of the investigation report
- Identify the finding(s), conclusion(s), or corrective action(s) about which there is disagreement
- Identify the findings of fact that are incorrect and/or the law that is misapplied
Within 35 calendar days of the receipt of that request, the CDE will:
- Review the investigator’s report
- Review the evidence presented at the investigation
- If necessary, gather and/or review additional information
- Review the decision
- Issue a final written investigation report
What happens if corrective actions are not completed?
The CDE ensures compliance by applying sanctions.
How do school districts or public agencies respond to a complaint?
- Cooperate with the investigator and provide documentation as requested in a timely manner
- Submit all documentation regarding the complaint
Failure to respond may result in a finding and remedy in favor of the complainant.
What are the responsibilities of the investigator?
- Reviews the submitted complaint request
- Contacts the complainant
- Confirms allegations
- Keeps accurate notes
- Contacts the school district or public agency
- Requests required materials for investigation
- Arranges interviews with school staff, if necessary
- Schedules dates and times for on-site visits, if necessary
- Reviews pertinent documents
- Conducts telephone, face-to-face, and/or on-site interviews with school staff, as necessary
- Prepares an investigation report that addresses each alleged violation
What are the CDE's responsibilities in the complaint process?
- Reviews the complaint and determines if all the required components are addressed, including contacting the public agency and complainant
- Adheres to timelines
- Sends investigation report copies as appropriate
- Provides technical assistance to school districts and public agencies for corrective actions
- Reconsiders investigation reports
- Retains all documents
Law and regulation governing the complaint investigation process include:
- Required State Complaint Procedures: Title 34, Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 300.151
- Minimum State Complaint Procedures: 34 CFR Section 300.152
- Filing a Complaint: 34 CFR Section 300.153
- State Complaint Timelines and Procedures: California Education Code sections 56043(p), and 56500.2
- State Investigation procedures: Title 5, California Code of Regulations sections 4660-4670