Work-Based Learning MeasuresDefinitions and resources on work-based learning measures as they relate to the California School Dashboard College/Career Indicator.
The California Department of Education (CDE) has been continuing its efforts to meet the State Board of Education's (SBE's) directive to expand the College/Career Indicator (CCI) with more career measures. This page provides definitions and details on current work-based learning measures in the CCI that have been approved by the SBE. It also reviews new measures that are currently being considered for potential inclusion in the CCI.
Current Work-Based Learning Measures
- State and Federal Job Programs
- Transition Work-Based Experience
- Transition Classroom-Based Work Exploration
A pre-apprenticeship program is designed to provide students with the entry-level skills necessary to be eligible to enter a registered apprenticeship program (i.e., an apprenticeship program that is registered at the state or national level).
Registered pre-apprenticeships are recognized by business and/or industry and are registered at the state or national level. These apprenticeships provide three components:
- Coursework directly related to a trade/occupation.
- Relevant job-learning activities (either on the job site or school site, as appropriate).
- A certificate of completion awarded upon successful completion of the pre-apprenticeship program.
Typically, schools that offer pre-apprenticeship programs have a partnership with a local business. Note that:
- A pre-apprenticeship certificate is not an industry certificate. Industry certificates, like those given to certified nursing assistants, can lead directly to employment.
- A pre-apprenticeship differs from an apprenticeship program in that an apprenticeship program provides apprentices with on the job training, classroom instruction, and supervision by a journey-level or expert-level craftsperson or occupational professional.
For Local educational agencies (LEAs) interested in registering their pre-apprenticeship program, please visit the California Department of Industrial Relations website
. The California Department of Industrial Relations uses California Labor Code Section 3100(b) to approve registered pre-apprenticeships and part of the approval process includes a memorandum of understanding or agreement with a State Registered Apprenticeship program(s).
Non-registered pre-apprenticeships are recognized by business but are not registered at the state or national level. These apprenticeships provide two components:
- Coursework directly related to a trade/occupation.
- Relevant job-learning activities (either on job site or school site, as appropriate).
Typically, schools that offer pre-apprenticeship programs have a partnership with a local business. Note that: A pre-apprenticeship differs from an apprenticeship program in that an apprenticeship program provides apprentices with on the job training, classroom instruction, and supervision by a journey-level or expert-level craftsperson or occupational professional.
This measure is applicable to Dashboard Alternative School Status (DASS) schools only. The following specific programs fall under this measure:
- Job Corps: a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Education (29 USC Sections 3191-3212), which offers General Educational Development test (GED) and supports, and vocational training to youth ages16 to 24 years old. Note that the completion of only the career training portion is required since the transition training often occurs after graduation.
- YouthBuild: a federal program administered by the U.S. Department of Labor (29 USC Section 3226), which trains youth, ages 16 to 24-year-old, who have dropped out of high school, in construction by building homes for low-income members of their communities.
- California Conservation Corps: a state program administered by the California Resources Agency (CA Public Resources Code Sections 14000-14424), which engages students, ages 18 to 25 years old, to perform physical labor for environmental conservation and provides life skills training.
- Regional Occupational Center/Program: a state program administered by a ROC/P (CA Education Code Section 52301), which provides career/technical education and services to California high school students.
Note: Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act (WIOA): The first data collection in 2018–19 was based on whether a student completed a state or federal job program. Beginning in 2019–20, the CDE began collecting which specific program a student completed under WIOA.
This measure is applicable to students with an Individualized Education Program (IEP) and who earn a Special Education Certificate of Completion.
Students who complete this measure must successfully complete a minimum of 100 hours of work-based learning since entering ninth grade of a program for students with disabilities on an IEP. The program must offer students work-based learning experiences that develop knowledge and job skills, in compliance with the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) requirements.
These include one or a combination of the following:
- Work-Based Learning: Participation in community-based experiences that develop knowledge and job skills through service learning and workplace mentoring experiences. Students may earn entry job certifications/permits (e.g., food handler’s permit, forklift operations permit) preparing them for competitive integrated employment (CIE).
- Employment/Work Experience: Assist the student to obtain subsidized/unsubsidized work, and on-the-job training experiences.
- Job Retention: Provide training on maintaining, upgrading, and leaving employment.
- Job Coach: Support and assistance either on or off the job. Example, teaching or support for job tasks.
This measure is applicable to students with an IEP and who earn a Special Education Certificate of Completion.
Students who complete this measure must successfully complete the equivalent of 4 courses of college and career exploration/preparation designed to prepare a student with an IEP for employment and independent living since entering grade nine.
These include a combination of the following:
- Career Awareness/Exploration Activities: Provide opportunities to engage in activities that increase knowledge of career options and enhance informed decision making (e.g., career fairs, tours, job shadowing and use of technology to explore choices).
- Post-Secondary Education Planning: Instruction/counseling/guidance that supports career decision making. This includes using student interest, abilities, and goals to develop a course of study, which culminates in an individualized education/career plan.
- Career Preparation/Job Search: job readiness–basic job skills (soft skills, 21st Century Skills, SCANS skills). Seeking and obtaining CIE, develop applications, interview, create and update resumes, maintain a portfolio, use labor market information, and utilize social media responsibly to search and apply for employment opportunities.
- Career/Vocational Assessments: Formal and/or informal career assessment which help students identify post-school career interests, abilities and goals.
- Curriculum Integration of Work-Readiness Skills/Contextual Learning: Career curriculum integration: Common core college/career readiness instruction integrated with career development and work-readiness, including soft skills.
- Destination/Transportation Training: Training to use transportation resources, and support student independence (including use of public transportation and/or obtaining driver's license).
- Life Skills/Independent Living: Training in the use of community resources, domestic skills, money management, finding and maintaining housing, identification of post-school support. May include benefits planning.
- Family Participation & Support of Transition: Involve, train parents/family and supportive adults to support and mentor youth as they transition. Includes knowledge of disabilities, accommodations, rights and access to programs and services.
The courses may have been completed during any grades 9 through 12.
Potential New Measures
Before new measures are included in the CCI, the CDE conducts an in-depth review and analysis with stakeholder groups, such as the CCI Work Group, Alternative Schools Task Force, California Practitioners Advisory Group, Technical Design Group, and other broad range of groups. These groups make recommendations on the inclusion or exclusion of each measure for the CCI and the placement criteria for Prepared versus Approaching Prepared. These recommendations are then presented to the SBE. The SBE approves whether a measure is included in the CCI.
Data on the following new measures are being collected for the first time at the end of the 2020–21 school year:
- Student-Led Enterprise
- Simulated Work-Based Learning
- Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) Score
An internship is a county, district, or school-sponsored experience that exposes students to the world of work. It is performed in partnership with local business, industries, or other organizations in the community. Internships provide students opportunities for supervised and specific practice for a future career.
- Be paid or unpaid
- Be Community Classroom, which is an unpaid, on-the-job training experience to help students acquire necessary competencies (skills, knowledge, and attitudes) to acquire entry-level employment. The intent of the community classroom is to provide students with additional resources so concurrent, formalized classroom instruction can be extended and the acquisition of salable skills enhanced. For further details, see California Education Code Section 52372.1 and Title 5, California Code of Regulations Section 10080.
- Be Co-Op Career Technical Education/Cooperative Vocational Education, which is a paid, on-the-job training experience that occurs concurrently with formal vocational classroom instruction. Cooperative vocational education assists students to develop and refine occupational competencies (attitudes, skills, and knowledges) needed to acquire, adjust, and advance in an occupation. For further details, see California Education Code Section 52372.1 and Title 5, California Code of Regulations Section 10100.
- Occur over the summer or during the school year
- Occur at any business type, such as profit or non-profit
Internships are not:
- Job shadowing (while job shadowing may be a valuable component of the work-based learning continuum, internships require that students be supervised, work alongside an industry expert, and include specific practice)
- A one-time event (i.e., live streaming a sports event or concert)
- A job that students secure on their own (e.g., summer job)
Note: Internships may, but are not required to, be connected to a Career Technical Education (CTE) pathway course and are required to be reported annually.
Student Internship Evaluation Form: The CDE, in collaboration with a business partner, developed an evaluation form and scoring guide. LEAs and schools are not required to use this form; it is available as a resource if needed. Note: internships spanning more than one school year must include an annual student evaluation.
A student-led enterprise involves the development and operation of a revenue-generating business (regardless of profit or loss), that operates outside the classroom and is associated with a course at the school in which the student is enrolled and evaluated by the certificated course instructor. The student-led enterprise:
- Must be tied to a course in which students develop a business and/or marketing plan
- May be tied to any course, including a course that is part of a CTE Pathway (e.g., business, marketing, entrepreneurship, STEAM, hospitality, tourism, information technology, etc.)
- Must be co-curricular (time spent in and out of the classroom)
- Must be operated by the student (student is not just an employee of the enterprise)
- Must be ongoing and not a one-day event (e.g. in agriculture course, students are in charge of caring and selling livestock, or in a culinary course, the students/teacher secures catering jobs that require food to be prepared and sold, and the student is responsible for purchasing ingredients, preparing and selling the food)
- Can include a non-profit venture
- Must bring in revenue (but does not need to make a profit)
A student-led enterprise is not a student who participates in an enterprise, such as working at the campus bookstore or volunteering at the school bake sale.
Note: The name of this measure has changed to remove the word “Virtual” as the core of this measure represents simulated work-based learning. This is a measure where students gain career experience while at school through an emulated workplace environment that is aligned to the classroom curriculum.
Simulated work-based learning:
- Is tied specifically to a course where students develop their own business plans, financial plans, or marketing plans, including websites
- Is tied specifically to a workplace experience within a school environment (distance, blended, and/or or in-person) in conjunction with business or industry
- Involves work-related and/or technical skill development
Simulated Work-Based Learning is not:
- An online course
- Remote Internship or remote Student-Led Enterprise
- Paid Student Work Experience
The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) is a military entrance exam that is given to determine enlistment eligibility and job training eligibility. This test is administered to students in grades ten through twelve in schools that offer this non-mandatory exam. While the ASVAB has multiple subtests, only the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) score is being collected.
The AFQT score is based on:
- Word Knowledge
- Paragraph Comprehension
- Arithmetic Reasoning
- Mathematics Knowledge
Note that while the data for all of the work-based learning measures on this web page are being collected through CALPADS, the ASVAB AFQT score is not being collected through CALPADS but rather through the ASVAB Reporting System.
Information and FAQs on the ASVAB AFQT are available on the following CDE web pages:
- CALPADS Training web page - scroll down to Other CALPADS Related Resources - ASVAB Reporting System
- ASVAB and AFQT FAQs web page
- CALPADS Flash #204
The following web pages provides details on the data collection of the work-based learning measures:
- CALPADS Flash #184
- California School Information Services web page - scroll down to Work-Based Learning Data Population Training