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Dyslexia Guidelines Table 6.1

Relationship of error patterns to potential language processing deficits.

YES = Relationship

NO = No Relationship

Error Patterns Deficits in Word Identification Challenges with Fluency Limited Vocabulary Semantic and/or Syntactic Challenges Decoding Difficulties Weak Semantic Integration Limits to Prior Exposure to Text/Style Reliance on Literal and/ or Flexible Thinking
Slow rate of reading and weak recall of content YES YES YES NO YES NO YES NO
Sentence-level confusion of content NO YES NO YES YES YES NO NO
Comprehension of sentences with weak recall of paragraphs NO NO NO YES NO YES YES NO
Recall stronger from initial content than later content NO NO NO NO NO YES NO NO
Recall stronger from later content than beginning of reading material YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO
Recall of basic facts but weak grasp of main concepts NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO
Retention of main concepts but with missing details YES NO YES NO NO NO NO NO
Understanding of content with weak inferential capability NO NO NO NO NO YES NO YES
Understanding of narrative writing but weaknesses related to expository materials NO NO YES YES NO YES YES YES
Difficulties with figurative language, taking perspective, and fact versus opinion NO NO YES YES NO YES NO YES
Improved recall when material read aloud YES YES NO NO YES NO NO NO
Weak skills at summarizing YES YES YES YES NO YES NO NO
Ability to answer questions when referencing text but inability to summarize or recall YES YES YES YES YES YES NO NO
Weak comprehension despite good decoding NO NO YES YES NO YES YES NO


Return to the The California Dyslexia Guidelines (PDF; 2MB)

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Questions:   Theresa Costa Johansen | | 916-322-1645
Last Reviewed: Thursday, March 9, 2023
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